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BSEB Bihar Board 12th English Book 50 Marks Solutions Chapter 1 Our Own Civilization
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Bihar Board Class 12 English Our Own Civilization Text Book Questions and Answers
Show no w a person relies on machinery in his daily life. Give four examples.
‘I live at Bhagalpur. The college in which I read starts from 6.45 a.m. I have to wake up early in the morning in order to reach my College in time. This is possible only through an alarm clock which 1 keep by my bed on a table. I take my bath and I use tap-water for it which comes through a pipe line from a distant reservoir duly filtered in a huge complex of machines ran by electricity and pumped to and stored in a large tanker.
I catch a bus regularly at 6.30 a.m. at Dr. R P. Road 9 cross-roads which drops me at the college gate. The bus in which I travel is once again a complex system of engine, and other rhechanical devices, which works by exploding a gas made of petrol and air. My classes are usually held in the sixth floor of the main building. The lift which carries me up is handled arid regulated by electricity which the college gets from the D.V.C. hydel power station. Thus I realy on different small or big machine or mechincal aids for leading a fairly normal ife.
Do mean invent machines because they are lazy ?
No, men do not invent machines because they are lazy, they do it because they want to save time and energy for greater things.
Why are order and safety necessary for civilization ?
Order and safety are necessary for civilization because in their absence all such activities of mankind which make up civilization could not continue. For instarce the inventor would not be able to invent, the scientist would find it difficult to discover some hidden trubs and the artist would fall to make beautiful things if there are no order and safety.
What do you think this sentence means : Previous civilizaiton were specialised and limited.
The sentence quoted above means that ancient civilization were confined to limited areas where particular types of races developed special types of civilizations. They are still known by the areas they belonged to e.g. the civilization which flourished in Greece is knwon as Greek civilization, in Rome as Roman civilization, in Egypt as Egyptian civilization, in Mesppotamia a Mesopotamian civilization and in China an Chinese civilizaiton.
When we go shopping, how do we know that the world is becoming a single place ?
When we go shopping, we purchase things imported from different parts of the world. We buy wheat which comes from the U.S.A. we get apple at cheaper rates from Australia watches from Switzerland and Japan, quality cricket bats from England, fine synthetic goods form China, Japan. All there things ate available in one market which show that distance has shrunk between far off lands. Any article can be found in any part of the world. This shows that the world is becoming a single place.
Are all things equally shared by in our world ?
No, all things are not shared equally in our world. Some of us enjoy maximum amenties of life and live luxurious live while most, of us find it difficult to make both the ends meet.
What is the greatest danger from political divisions ?
The greatest danger from political divisions is of war which unlike previous ones would spread throughout the world.
What is our chief hope for preventing war ?
Our chief hope for preventing war is the formation of some sort of world government.
Are machines always easy to control ?
No, machines are not always easy to control. Modem men have become so much dependent on machines that they refuse to work or develop mechanical complications or blow up causing vast destruction around them the time men stop taking proper care of them or become negligent towards them.
How should man spend his time and energy ?
Man should spend his time and energy in making beautiful things, finding out more and more about the universe, settling disputes and differences between warring nations and discovering new ways to prevent poverty.
General Instructions about 2nd, 3rd and 4th questions.
In exercise 2 to 4 below re-write all the sentences like sentence (ii) below:
(i) If you haven’t got good health, you cannot enjoy anything.
(ii) Unless you have good health, you cannot enjoy anything.
(a) If we don’t obey law, civilization will disappear.
Unless we obey law, civilization will disappear.
(b) If people don’t use machines, their work will become dull and heavy.
Unless people use machines, their work will become dull and heavy.
(c) If we don’t keep the peace, war will destroy us all.
Unless we keep the peace, the war will destroy us all.
(d) If he doesn’t come tomorrow, he won’t get his pay.
Unless he comes tomorrow, he wont’ get his pay.
(i) We have grown quite used to them. We do not notice them any more.
We have grown so used to them that we do not notice them any more.
(a) I have grown used to wear glasses. I don’t notice them any more.
I have grown so used to wear glasses that I don’t notice them any more.
(b) He is used to heavy loads. He doesn’t notice the weight.
He is so used to heavy loads that he doesn’t notice the weight.
(c) They are used to regular meals. They don’t remember their former poverty.
They are so used to regular meals that they don’t remember their former poverty.
(d) He has grown used to walking. He has sold his car.
He has grown so used to walking that he has sold his car.
(i) How do we manage our machines ? We don’t know.
We don’t know how to manage you machines.
(a) Where do we put clothes ? They haven’t told us.
They haven’t told us where to put clothes.
(b) When does he turn the water off ? He doesn’t know.
He doesn’t know when to turn the water off.
(c) How do we get to the railway station ? We don’t know.
We don’t know how to get to the railway station.
(d) How do we start the engine ? The instructions don’t tell us.
The instrucitons don’t tell us how to start the engine.
Put the verbs in brackets in the sentences below in their correct tense.
(a) Nowadays illness is less terrible because anaesthetics (use).
(b) Today a man (live) longer than he did before.
(c) These days food (bring in) from different countries.
(d) In the modern world states still (divide) by frontiers.
(a) Nowadays illness is less terrible because anaesthetics are used.
(b) Today a man lives longer than he did before.
(c) These days food brought in from different countries.
(d) In the modem world states still will divided by frontiers.
In the sentences below certain words or phrases are in italics.
Use words or phrases from this extract in their place, so as to give the same meaning (refer to pp. 20-22)
(a) Machines rule our lives.
(b) Rich people often live in great comfort.
(c) Yesterday I saw a terrible street accident.
(d) I can’t spare enough money for a bicycle.
(e) The view from my bedroom window is very pleasant.
(f) In the stores there were large amounts of com.
(g) The whole building was on fire.
(h) Machines make our spare time greater.
(i) My speech had a very strange result; everyone left.
(j) Please look after my rose bushes very carefully.
(a) Machines govern our lives.
(b) Rich people often live in luxury.
(c) Yesterday I saw a dread fill street accident.
(d) I can’t spend great quantities of money in a bicycle.
(e) The view from my bedroom window is beautiful.
(f) In the stores there were large quantities of com.
(g) The whole building was ablaze.
(h) Machines have won for us our spare time to finding out more and more about the universe.
(i) My speech had a very strange effect : everyone left.
(j) Please look after my rose bushes very attentively.
use the following words or phrases once only in the sentences beloow:
energetic, ill-health, explode, transmit, praise, relay on, invade, develop, healthy, lifetime, savegery, break into.
(a) He is very ………. he mns a mile every morning.
(b) He used to be very ………. but now he has ……….
(c) In my ………. I have seen two wars. In both of them there was great ……….
(d) People often ………. that boy for this honesty. But in my opinion you can’t ………. him.
(e) Countries often ………. their neighbours.
(f) A thief ………. my car last week.
(g) Electric current was ………. along a wire and the bomb ……….
(a) energetic, (b) healthy; ill-health, (c) lifetime; savagery, (d) praise; relay on, (e) invade, (f) broke, (g) transmitted; exploded.
Given an account of the machines which you yourself use in your daily life.
I am an early riser. But without the help of an alarm clock it would not have been possible for me up get up early in the morning. The clock is a machine which ticks with a series of interlined wheels.
A cup of tea in the morning refreshes me. I don’t like to give trouble to others and therefore make the tea myself for which I use electric stove. When I am taking tea, I turn my transister on and sweet melody follows. I hear world news from the B.B.C. Is it not wonderful that something is spoken thousands of miles away and within seconds we hear it on our transistor set ? I press my clothes with my electric-iron and save the money of the launderer. In electric stove and electric iron the electrical energy is converted into heat energy which is the process of Science. Their use saves both my labour and time.
Our Own Civilization Word Meanings
Regulated-controlled = अधीन में किया Complicated-complex = उलझा हुआ । Generated-produced = पैदा किया । Transmitted-communicated = संप्रेषित । Amusement-pastime, entertainment = ख़ुशी,आनन्द Crane-a type of huge machine which lifts heavy article with its arm and can put it at another place = बोझा उठानेवाला मशीन Devices-methods = ढंग Disputes-quarrels, conflicts = विवाद Burglars-thieves = चोर Achievement-accomplishment, getting something done =उपलिबध Anaeshetics–Drugs which prevent us from feeling pain = बेहोश करेन वाली रसायन । Savages-uncivilized persons = असभ्य, जंगली । Vigorous-powerful = शक्तिशाली Secure-safe= सुरक्षित Babylon and Assyriatwo civilizations of Mesopotamia = मेसोपोटामिया कालीन शहर Farflung-widely. spread = बहुत दूर तक फैला हुआ Exceedingly very much = अत्यधिक Caliph chief civil and religious muslim ruler = खलीफा Communication-exchange of ideas = विचारों का आदान-प्रदान । Invaded-attached = आक्रमण किया । The Iron Curtain–from communist countries it is difficult to get any information which the concerned government do not wish to communicate to the outside world = लौक पार्द Oases-green patches af the desert with water, frontiers = हरे रंग का घड़ा Haystack-dried grass, a pile of hay = सूखी घास Solomon-a great king in the Holy Bible = सोलेमन नाम का राजा Set a blaze-burn = प्रज्वलित Enormously-greatly = अत्यधिक Igenious clever and skilful = चालाक Survived-continued to live or existed = जीवित Tap-extract or obtain something from somebody something = उद्धारण Universe-whole of the space, with its stars planets etc = भूमंडल ।
Our Own Civilization Summary in Hindi
“Our Own Civilization” सी. ई. एम जोड़ लिखित निबन्ध है । इसमें लेखक ने विज्ञानं हमें क्या दिया है और हम विज्ञान से किस तरह प्रभावित हैं, विवेचना की है।
आज हम लोग विज्ञान के युग में रहते हैं और हमारे चारों तरफ विज्ञान ही है और यह हमारे कार्यों में मदद करता है । हीटर, सिलाई मशीन, समाचार पत्र, टेलीग्राफ, टेलीफोन, घड़ी, ट्रेन, बस, लिफ्ट, स्केलटर आदि जटिल मशीन के आधार पर आधारित हैं । प्लग को मशीन से जोड़ कर स्वीच ऑन एवं ऑफ कर चलाते और बन्द करते हैं । मशीन हमारे जीवन को आसान और आरामदायक बना दिया है। हम मनोरंजन, भ्रमण और अपने कार्य के लिए विज्ञान पर निर्भर हैं। ये मशीन हमारे अच्छे सेवक़ हैं लेकिन हमने इसे खिलौना बना दिया है । ये तभी तक काम करते हैं जबतक इनमें पेट्रोल और पानी है । इन्हें भी अराम चाहिए ।
विज्ञान के अनेक सकारात्मक प्रभाव हमारे समाज में हैं । इसने लोगों की सुरक्षा और अनुशासन में विकास किया है । जहाँ कहीं भी दो व्यक्तियों के बीच झगड़ा होता है, कानून की मदद लेते हैं । कानून मामले का सही मूल्यांकन करता है, न्याय करता है । इस तरह आदमी के झगड़ा में अधिकार शक्ति का स्थान ले लिया है । कानून हमें डकैती, और हिंसा से बचाता है। प्राचीन सभ्यता हिंसा के कारण समाप्त हो गई । इस तरह विज्ञान हमें पूर्णतः हिंसा से छुटकारा ‘ दिला दिया है । द्वितीयंतः इसने हमारे तकलीफों के भय को कम कर दिया है । एनेस्थेटिक और औषधि के प्रयोग से गहरे जख्म में भी हम पीड़ा का अनुभव नहीं करते हैं । विज्ञान की मदद से पुरुष और महिलाएँ न सिर्फ अच्छे स्वास्थ्य का उपयोग करते हैं अपितु पहले की अपेक्षा अधिक दिनों तक जीवित भी रहते हैं । हमारी सभ्यता पूर्व की सम्भ्यता अधिक सुरक्षित है.।
प्राचीन सभ्यताएँ सीमित थीं। आधुनिक सभ्यता विकसित है जिसकी तुलना मरुभूमि में फैली हुई हरियाली से की जा सकती है जो एशिया, अफ्रीका, यूरोप अमेरिका, आस्ट्रेलिया में फैली है। प्रारंभिक सभ्यताएँ सीमित क्षेत्र में सीमित थीं लेकिन आज की सभ्यता पूर्ण विश्व में फैली हुई है । इसमें अनेक सभ्यताओं का संमिश्रण है । संसार एक जगह आज केन्द्रित होकर एकाकार हो गया है।
विज्ञान ने हमें सुरक्षा प्रदान किया है । लेकिन उनसे खतरा भी पैदा हो गया है ।
Our Own Civilization Summary in English
Ours is an age of science. Form morning till we go to sleep, machines, the gifts of science come to our aid. At first it appears that men have become so much lazy, that they cann’t to without machines. But actually they have made machines for saving their time and energy, Machines are, out extra limbs. Man is not lazy at all, he is most restless and energetic of all the created beings. He takes the services of machines only in getting certain boring jobs done so that may save his time and energy for higher things.
Civilizaiton is the sum total of the higher activites performed by mankind upto our own age. Safety and order are two necessary factors for the progress of any civilization. In our own age human civilization has these two facilities which were not there in previous civilizations. Modern men have better medical facilities, they lead healthier and longer lives than men in the past could. Our civilization is much more secure than the previous ones. This is precisely because it is very much widely spread. Most of the civilizations in past came to and end because powerful uncivilized people attacked had destroyed them.
Previous civilizations were confined to certain areas where as modern civilization has spreed over Europe, America, Australia and great parts of Asia and Africa. Most of these continents have such weapons that savage or uncivilized people dare not attack them.
Thus our world has a chance of becoming a single whole unity. International trade and commerce have brought even distant countries together. It does not mean that there exists a friendly and cordial relations among all the nations of the world. Russia and other communist countries are living behind the Iron curtain’. The danger we may expect not from outside and uncivilized people but from within.
Thus our world has a chance of becoming a single whole unit. International trade and commerce have brought even distant countries together. It does not mean that there exists a friendly and cordial relations among all the nations of the world. Russia and other communist countries are living behind the Iron curtain’. The danger we may expect not from outside and uncivilized people but from within.
Now let us examine some of the defects of out civilization. Most of the developed nations have adopted democratic system for governance. There all men are equal before the law and they are free to choose their representatives to rule them.
In our age those is a great danger of war. The world has already suffered a heavy loss of life and property during the two great wars. Our world is sharply divided in two power blocks (now three the third being China) one is led by America and the other by Russia. These power blocks are bitterly opposed to each other. There in a arm race in the world which is because of their mutual fear and lack of trust in each other.
One may argue that mankind has survived in spite of wars in the past. But in our age if there is a nuclear war it will wipe the earth clear not only of human race but also of all the living beings. This may be prevented only through the formation of some sort of world government. Two attempt have already been made in this direction.
Another defect of our civilization is that it does not know what do with its knowledge. Man had initially made machines to be his servants but with his increasing dependence it may be said that very soon they will become his masters. And the machines are very stern masters. They constant vigilence.
But human beings can and should use machines, still as their servants and thus enable themselves to creat beautiful things, think freely live rightly and maintain justice equally between man and man. By making more beautiful things, finding out more and more about the mysterious universe, removing the causes of conflicts and quarrels between nations, discovering new methods of preventing poverty, human beings can make their civilization great and most lasting.
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