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Bihar Board Class 10 English Grammar Tenses
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of given Verbs
1. Past Indefinite Tense (V2)
Past Indefinite Tense का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित स्थितियों में किया जाता है-
(a) भूतकाल में पूरी हुई किसी क्रिया के लिए :
- We learnt English at school.
- He killed a snake..
- My father taught in this school.
(b) भूतकाल के सम्बन्ध में किसी आदत, अथवा प्रायः होने वाली क्रिया के लिए :
- He came to me every evening.
- He never told a lie.
- I always spoke the truth.
2. Past Continuous Tense (was/were V1-ing)
Past Progressive Tense का प्रयोग तब किया जाता है जब कोई क्रिया भूतकाल में किसी निश्चित समय पर अथवा किसी निश्चित अवधि के दौरान चल रही हो।
- He was writing a letter when I saw him.
- I was reading a novel yesterday afternoon.
Past Progressive तथा Simple Past के अन्तर को अच्छी प्रकार से समझ लेना चाहिए।
Simple Past Tense – भूतकाल में पूरी हो चुकी क्रिया के लिए।
Past Progressive Tense – भूतकाल में जारी रही क्रिया के लिए।
Past Progressive का प्रयोग उस स्थिति में किया जाता है जब हमारी मुख्य रुचि क्रिया के समय में न हो, अपितु क्रिया के जारी रहने में हो।
क्रिया के पूरे होने में हमारी रुचि कम होती है और क्रिया के जारी रहने की स्थिति पर अधिक बल होता है। यदि हमारो रुचि क्रिया के पूरा होने में हो तो Simple Past का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
|Completed activity (V2)||Continuing activity
|1. He came into the room||while I was waiting.|
|2. I saw her||as I was passing yesterday.|
|3. I dropped my watch||while I was winding it.|
|4. When you telephoned||we were playing.|
|5. It began to rain||just as we were leaving the house.|
3. Past Perfect Tense (had + V3)
Past Perfect Tense का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित स्थितियों में किया जाता है :
(a) ऐसी क्रिया के लिए जो भूतकाल में किसी निश्चित समय (moment) से पहले, या किसी निश्चित समय तक पूरी हो चुकी हो।
- The patient had died before the doctor came.
- I had finished my work by evening.
(b) किसी असन्तुष्ट इच्छा को प्रकट करने के लिए।
- I wish my father had been here at this time.
- I wish I had worked harder.
(c) Present Perfect अथवा Simple Past वाले किसी वाक्य को Direct कथन से Indirect कथन में बदलने के लिए भी इस Tense का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
- He said, “The train arrived late.” (Simple Past)
He said that the train had arrived late. (Past Perfect)
- He said, “I have left my parents.” (Present Perfect)
He said that he had left his parents. (Past Perfect)
(d) यदि किसी वाक्य में भूतकाल में घटित दो घटनाओं का वर्णन हो, तो उनमें से जो घटना पहले घटी हो, उसके लिए Past Perfect Tense का प्रयोग किया जाता है, और जो घटना अपेक्षाकृत रूप से बाद में घटी हो, तो उसके लिए Past Indefinite Tense का प्रयोग किया जाता है
Past Perfect Tense का प्रयोग तभी किया जाना चाहिए यदि भूतकाल में होने वाली कोई क्रिया किसी अन्य क्रिया की अपेक्षा पहले पूरी होने का भाव रखती हो।
(Past Perfect Tense is never used except to show the priority of one past event to another)
|1. The bell had rung||before I reached the school.|
|2. We had finished this lesson||before he came.|
|3. She had gone mad||before her brother arrived.|
|4. The patient had died||when the doctor stepped in.|
4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense (had + been + V1-ing)
Past Perfect Continuous Tense का प्रयोग तब किया जाता है यदि कोई क्रिया भूतकाल में आरम्भ होकर भूतकाल में ही किसी निश्चित समय पर चल रही हो. जैसे-
When I reached there at 2 p.m., he had been waiting for me since 1.30 p.m.
Important Questions solved
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of verbs given in brackets.
- I _________ him last year. (See)
- The train __________ before we reached the station. (leave)
- He ________ to school by bus. (go)
- They __________ here for five years. (live)
- I saw him last year.
- The train had left before we reached the station.
- He goes to school by bus.
- They have been living here for five years.
- The sun _________ in the east. (rise)
- He _________ to school every day. (go)
- I wish I ________ a good man. (was)
- He _________ the poor yesterday. (feed)
- The sun rises in the east.
- He went to school yesterday.
- I wish I were a good man.
- He fed the poor yesterday.
- Have you _______ him? (See)
- He ________ the school before the bell rang. (reach)
- They were _________ Out an hour ago. (see)
- We __________ a film last night (see)
- Have you seen him?
- He had reached the school before the bell rang.
- They were seen out an hour ago.
- We saw a film last night.
- We have not ________ him for a year. (see)
- Who _________ my book? (steal)
- My brother __________ home a week ago. (go)
- The price of mangoes __________ gone up. (has)
- We have not seen him for a year.
- Who has stolen my book?
- My brother went home a week ago.
- The price of mangoes has gone up.
- While we worked, they _______ (play)
- I _______ working there. (has)
- She __________ here since 1989. (live)
- The sun _________ when we went out. (shine)
- While we worked, they played.
- I have been working there.
- She has been living here since 1989.
- The sun was shining when we went out.
- He _______ for Patna next week. (leave)
- It ________ since last night. (rain)
- The price of things ________ up. (go)
- She did not ________ a letter. (write)
- He is leaving for Patna next week.
- It has been raining since last night.
- The price of things has gone up.
- She did not write a letter.
Fill in the blanks with correct Tense of the verbs given in brackets.
- Columbus ______ America (discover)
- The cinema show _________ when I reached the hall. (start)
- After he met with an accident he ________ to a hospital. (take)
- The old lady _______ the Gita when the guests arrived. (read)
- Columbus discovered America.
- The cinema show had started when I reached the hall.
- After he met with an accident he was taken to a hospital.
- The old lady was reading the Gita when the guests arrived.
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