Bihar Board Class 10 English Grammar Modal Auxiliaries

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Bihar Board Class 10 English Grammar Modal Auxiliaries

Auxiliary Verb (सहायक क्रिया) – जिस Verb का अपना कोई महत्त्व न हो, किन्तु वह मुख्य Verb के साथ मिलकर Tense के बनाने में सहायता करे, उसे Auxiliary Verb अथवा Helping Verb कहा जाता है; जैसे

  1. She is going to school. .
  2. I have finished my work.
  3. You will win a prize.
  4. I can solve this question.

List of Auxiliary Verbs:

  1. Be, am, is, are, was, were
  2. Have, has, had
  3. Do, does, did
  4. Shall, should
  5. Will, would
  6. Can, could
  7. May, might
  8. Must have to, am to, etc.
  9. Ought to
  10. Used to
  11. Need
  12. Dare

Types of Auxiliaries
सहायक क्रियाएँ दो प्रकार की हो सकती हैं-

1. Primary Auxiliaries 2. Modal Auxiliaries
Be: am, is, are, was, were; do, does, did; have, has, had. Will, would, shall, should, can, could, may, might, must (am to, is to, are to, have to, etc.) ought to, used to, need, dare.
1. Primary auxiliaries को स्वतन्त्र रूप से main verb के रूप में भी प्रयोग किया जा सकता है
He is a rich man.
1. Modal auxiliaries को स्वतन्त्र रूप से main verb के रूप में  प्रयोग नहीं किया जा सकता है।
He will go.
2. इनका रूप कर्ता के person और number के अनुसार बदल जाता है।
I am going home.
2. इन पर कर्ता के person और number का कोई प्रभाव नहीं पड़ता है।
I will study hard.
3. Be, do, have के पूर्व to लगा कर इन्हें infinitive क्रियाओं के रूप में प्रयोग किया जा सकता है
She wants to be rich.
3. किसी भी modal auxiliary पूर्व to का प्रयोग नहीं किया जा सकता है।
4. Be और have के साथ ing लगा कर इन्हें Participle बनाया जा सकता है। 4. किसी भी modal auxiliary के साथ ing का प्रयोग नहीं किया जा सकता है।
Being tired, I went home.

The Use of Some Modals

Will and Shall का प्रयोग।
will और Shall सम्बन्धी प्रयोग के लिए निम्नलिखित नियम ध्यान में रखिए-

In Assertive Sentences
1. यदि किसी भविष्य की घटना का केवल साधारण रूप में ही वर्णन करना हो, तो
First Person के लिए shall का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
Second और Third Persons के लिए will का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
I shall finish my work quickly.

2. यदि वाक्य में किसी भविष्य सम्बन्धी आदेश (command), प्रण (promise), निश्चय (determination), धमकी (threat) आदि का वर्णन हो तो–
First Person के लिए will का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
Second और Third Person के लिए shall का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
I will return your money without fail.

3. यदि वक्ता अपने किसी भविष्य-सम्बन्धी उद्देश्य (intention) को प्रकट करना चाहता हो, तो वह अपने लिए will का प्रयोग करेगा। अर्थात् ऐसे वाक्यों में
First Person के साथ will का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
I will appear in the Senior Secondary Examination next year.

Would तथा Should का प्रयोग
I. Would का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित हालतों में किया जाता है-

  1. Will का Past – I told him that I would come.
  2. प्रार्थना वाचक Would you close the window?
  3. शर्त वाचक – He would pass if he worked hard.

II. Should का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित हालतों में किया जाता है-

  1. उपदेश वाचक – You should give up smoking.
  2. सम्भावना वाचक – They should be here by now.
  3. नैतिक फर्ज – You should do your duty.
  4. Shall का Past – He told me that I should would pass.

Can तथा Could का प्रयोग
I. Can का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित हालतों में किया जाता है-

  1. योग्यता सूचक – She can dance very well.
  2. इजाजत सूचक – You can go home now..
  3. सम्भावना सूचक – It can happen to anyone.
  4. Pt. Cont. की जगह – I can hear people talking.

II. Could का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित हालतों में किया जाता है

  1. शर्त वाचक – I could lift this box (if I tried)
    Could (would) you bring me a glass of water.
  2. प्रार्थना वाचक – Could (would) you tell me the time?
  3. सम्भावना सूचक – One of the prisoners escaped yesterday.
    He could be anywhere now.
  4. Can का Past – He said that I could go.
    He could come to me any time he liked.

May तथा Might का प्रयोग
I. May का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित हालतों में किया जाता है-

  1. अनुमति/इजाजत सूचक – You may go now.
    May I come in, sir?
  2. सम्भावना सूचक – His statement may (can/ could) be true.
    His plan may succeed. (can/could)
  3. इच्छा/प्रार्थना सूचक – May you live long!
    May our country prosper!

II. Might का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित हालतों में किया जाता है-

  1. May का Past – He said that I might go.
    I thought that he might help her.
  2. भावी सम्भावना – He might (may) pass this year.
    He might (may) reach here by evening.
  3. इजाजत होना – Might I have your pen?
    You might do me a favour.

(May की अपेक्षा might में अधिक झिझक और विनम्रता का संकेत होता है।)

Must का प्रयोग
Must का प्रयोगं निम्नलिखित हालतों में किया जाता है-

  1. उपदेश सूचक – You must consult some good doctor.
    You must work hard this year.
  2. आवश्यकता सूचक – You must be back by evening.
    The students must bring their books daily.
  3. सम्भावना सूचक – The child must be hungry.
    He must have made some big mistake.
  4. बन्धन/मजबूरी सूचक – You must do as you are told.
    He must clear his accounts before leaving.

Ought to तथा Used to का प्रयोग
I. Ought के साथ सदा to का प्रयोग किया जाता है। (Ought to = Should) Ought to का प्रयोग (should की तरह) निम्नलिखित हालतों में किया जाता है-

  1. नैतिक फर्ज – You ought to respect your elders.
    You ought to have helped the poor.
  2. इच्छा-योग्य सम्भावना – Mohan ought to win the race this time.
  3. इच्छा-योग्य जरूरत – He ought to build a new house now.

(इस तालिका में दिए गए सभी वाक्यों में ought to के स्थान पर should का प्रयोग किया जा सकता है।)

II. Ought के समान used भी एक ऐसा modal है जिसके साथ to का प्रयोग करना जरूरी होता है-

  1. He used to live here.
  2. He never used to live here.

Need का प्रयोग
1. Auxiliary के रूप में Need का प्रयोग केवल Negative और Interrogative वाक्यों में किया जाना चाहिए। इसका प्रयोग किसी सन्देह (doubt) अथवा मनाही (prohibition) को जोरदार ढंग से व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है।

  • Need you go yet? No, you needn’t.
  • Need she come tomorrow ? No, she needn’t.

2. Need का Third Person Singular सदा need ही होता है, न कि needs:

  • Need Mohan go there now?
  • He need not worry any more.

3. प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों में need का प्रयोग तभी किया जाता है जब negative उत्तर वांछित हो।

  • Need you go there?
  • No, I needn’t.

4. Interrogative और Negative वाक्यों में need के साथ to का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है।

  • Need he do any work?
  • No, he needn’t do any work.

5. किन्तु निम्नलिखित वाक्यों में need के साथ to का प्रयोग किया गया है-

  • He need to go now. (Affirmative)
  • He does not need to go now. (Negative)
  • Does he need to go now? (Interrogative)

यदि ध्यान से देखा जाए तो पता चलेगा कि इन सभी वाक्यों में need को मुख्य क्रिया (Principal Verb) के रूप में प्रयोग किया गया है, न कि Auxiliary के रूप में।

6. Need not की जगह haven’t got to, don’t have to, don’t need to का प्रयोग किया जा सकता है।

  • He need not go.

7. जब needs का प्रयोग must के साथ किया गया हो, तो यह एक adverb का कार्य कर रहा होता है। वास्तव में needs एक Possessive Case है जिसमें apostrophe (‘) का लोप किया होता है। इस प्रकार : needs = need’s = of need = of necessity = necessarily (adv.) इस प्रकार हमने देखा कि needs को एक adverb क्यों माना जाता है।

  • He must needs finish his work by evening.

Dare का प्रयोग
1. Auxiliary के रूप में dare का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित हालतों में किया जाता है-

  • Negative वाक्यों में।
  • Interrogative वाक्यों में।
  • सन्देह (doubt) व्यक्त करने वाले वाक्यों में।
  • ऐसे वाक्यों में जिनमें hardly, never, no one, nobody का प्रयोग किया गया हो।

2. जब dare का प्रयोग auxiliary के रूप में किया गया हो, तो इसके साथ to का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है।

3. Dare का Third Person Singular सदा dare ही होता है, न कि dares.
उदाहरण: (Negative)

  • He dare not fight with me.
  • He will hardly dare go there again.

अब क्या आप बता सकते हैं कि Need और Dare के प्रयोग के सम्बन्ध में कौन-कौन सी बातें एक जैसी हैं?

Important Questions solved

Question 1.
Complete the following sentences with suitable modals given in the brackets:
(may, must, could, will)

  1. _______ I ask a question?
  2. He ______ go to call me tomorrow.
  3. Who ______ win the race?

Answer:

  1. May I ask a question?
  2. He must go to call me tomorrow.
  3. Who will win the race?

Question 2.
Fill in the blanks with suitable models given in the brackets.
(shall, should, will, would, may, might, can, could, must)

  1. You ______ pay the examination fee at the nick of time.
  2. Labour hard so that you _______ pass.
  3. He ______ submit the report next week.
  4. The boys ________ obey their teacher.

Answer:

  1. must
  2. may
  3. must
  4. should.

Question 3.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in brackets.
(should, might, may)

  1. He said that ______ do the work.
  2. ______ God protect you!
  3. We ________ help the poor

Answer:

  1. might
  2. may
  3. should.

Question 4.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in the brackets:
(Should, would, ought, needn’t)

  1. We _______ to improve the lot of the poor in our country.
  2. You _______ have taken all that trouble.
  3. He said he _______ be moving into his new house next month.
  4. You are so wise. You _______ have been a philosopher.

Answer:

  1. We ought to improve the lot of the poor in our country.
  2. You needn’t have taken all that trouble.
  3. He said he would be moving into his new house next month.
  4. You are so wise. You should have been a philosopher.

Question 5.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in the brackets:
(Would, can’t, may, could)

  1. My uncle _______ speak five languages.
  2. Can I smoke here? Yes, you _______
  3. Can I smoke here? No, you _______
  4. He said he _______ come the next day.

Answer:

  1. My uncle could speak five languages.
  2. Can I smoke here? Yes, you may.
  3. Can I smoke here? No, you can’t.
  4. He said he would come the next day.

Question 6.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in the brackets:
(have, needn’t ought, used to)

  1. The driver _______ to have been more careful.
  2. I will do it myself. You _______ come.
  3. The candidates _______ to appear for an interview.
  4. He _______ come home late at night.

Answer:

  1. The driver ought to have been more careful.
  2. I will do it myself. You needn’t come.
  3. The candidates have to appear for an interview.
  4. He used to come home late at night.

Question 7.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in the brackets.
(might, can’t, would, could)

  1. I said I _______ do it.
  2. _______ I ask you a question.
  3. He _______ hear. He is deaf.
  4. He _______ come home by the morning train.

Answer:

  1. I said I could do it.
  2. Would I ask you a question?
  3. He can’t hear. He is deaf.
  4. He might come home by the morning train.

Question 8.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in the brackets:
(ought, shouldn’t càn, could)

  1. He _______ read and write English.
  2. He asked if he _______ borrow my bicycle.
  3. He _______ worry so much about his matter.
  4. You _______ to read this book. It is very exciting.

Answer:

  1. He can read and write English.
  2. He asked if he could borrow my bicycle.
  3. He shouldn’t worry so much about his matter.
  4. You ought to read this book. It is very exciting.

Question 9.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in the brackets.
(can, used to, must not, could)

  1. I don’t want to see your face. You _______ come here again.
  2. He _______ come and see me again in a day or two.
  3. He wanted to know if he _______ attend the show.
  4. _______ you see a parrot in the tree?

Answer:

  1. I don’t want to see your face. You must not come here again.
  2. He used to come and see me again in a day or two.
  3. He wanted to know if he could attend the show.
  4. Can you see a parrot in the tree?

Question 10.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in the brackets.
(Would, should, would, would)

  1. _______ you like to have a cup of tea?
  2. He said that he _______ not come the next day.
  3. _______ you please stop talking?
  4. We _______ speak English fluently.

Answer:

  1. Would you like to have a cup of tea?
  2. He said that he would not come the next day.
  3. Would you please stop talking?
  4. We should speak English fluently.

Question 11.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in the brackets:

  1. She _______ Speak English fluently. (can/could/ought)
  2. He works hard so that he _______ pass. (may/will/can)
  3. _______ you please help me lift the bundle? (could/would/can)
  4. If I were you I _______ not do it. (would/may/must)

Answer:

  1. She can speak English fluently
  2. He works hard so that he may pass.
  3. Could you please help me lift the bundle?
  4. If I were you I would not do it.

Question 12.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in the brackets:

  1. The pupils _______ to obey their order. (ought/used/could)
  2. _______ you like to do as I tell you? (would/may/could)
  3. You _______have told him that there is a ferocious dog in the house. (should/would/shouldn’t)
  4. You _______ not have laughed at his failure. (should/ought/must)

Answer:

  1. The pupils ought to obey their order.
  2. Would you like to do as I tell you?
  3. You should have told him that there is a ferocious dog in the house.
  4. You should not have laughed at his failure.

Question 13.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in brackets:

  1. It _______ rain today. (may/would/can)
  2. If you want to score good marks, you _______ work hard. (must/must not/may)
  3. You _______ not violate the rules if you do not want to be punished. (may/must not/must)
  4. If the weather is bad, she _______ refuse to go with us. (will/may/could)

Answer:

  1. It may rain today.
  2. If you want to score good marks, you must work hard.
  3. You must not violate the rules if you do not want to be punished.
  4. If the weather is bad, she will refuse to go with us.

Question 14.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in brackets:

  1. It _______ rain in the evening today. (must/could/may)
  2. A man _______ eat to live. (could/may/must)
  3. _______ I have a look at the album, please? (may/could/must)
  4. A Government servant _______ abide by the rules. (would/must/should)

Answer:

  1. It may rain in the evening today.
  2. A man must eat to live.
  3. Could I have a look at the album, please?
  4. A Government servant must abide by the rules.

Question 15.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in brackets:

  1. _______ you have a cup of coffee? (would shouldn’t/must)
  2. You _______ not give up your virtues. (may/must/must not)
  3. He _______ come tomorrow. (will/may/can)
  4. She _______ drive a car when she was only twelve. (could/may/must)

Answer:

  1. Would you have a cup of coffee?
  2. You must not give up your virtues.
  3. He may come tomorrow.
  4. She could drive a car when she was the only twelve.

Question 16.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in brackets:

  1. You _______ lock the room before you leave. (must/may/must not)
  2. Soldiers _______ obey their officers. (may/must/must not)
  3. You _______ have a holiday tomorrow. (would/will/may)
  4. When I was young I _______ run for three hours at a stretch. (could/might/would)

Answer:

  1. You must lock the room before you leave.
  2. Soldiers must obey their officers.
  3. You will have a holiday tomorrow.
  4. When I was young I could run for three hours at a stretch.

Question 17.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in brackets:

  1. _______ God give you the courage to face this tragedy. (may/will/would)
  2. A son _______ show respect to his parents. (must/may/must not)
  3. Preeti worked hard lest she _______ fail. (should/would/shouldn’t)
  4. Your father _______ be nearly eighty now. (may/must/must not)

Answer:

  1. May God give you the courage to face this tragedy.
  2. A son must show respect to his parents.
  3. Preeti worked hard lest she should fail.
  4. You father must be nearly eighty how.

Question 18.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in brackets:

  1. ______ God protect you. (May/ought/used)
  2. He died so that others _______ live. (might/may/ought)
  3. She was afraid lest she _______ be late. (should/may/can’t)
  4. We _______ work or perish. (must/must not/may)

Answer:

  1. May God protect you.
  2. He died so that others might live.
  3. She was afraid lest she should be late.
  4. We must work for perish.

Question 19.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in brackets:

  1. _______ you have a good time! (may/ought/used)
  2. You _______ look after your old parents. (should/ought to/must)
  3. If you practise well you _______ be selected in the team. (can/would/could)
  4. You _______ ask a question, if you please. (may/can/could)

Answer:

  1. May you have a good time!
  2. You should look after your old parents.
  3. If you practise well you can be selected in the team.
  4. You may ask a question if you please.

Question 20.
Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given in brackets:
(May, could, may, should)

  1. The government _______ provide cycle lanes in big cities.
  2. _______ God bless you!
  3. I _______ sing very well when I was a child.
  4. ______ God bring you a lot of prosperity.

Answer:

  1. The Government should provide cycle lanes in big cities.
  2. May God bless you!
  3. I could sing very well when I was a child.
  4. May God bring you a lot of prosperity.

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