Priyanshu

Critical Appreciation of The Poem The Soldier

Critical Appreciation of The Poem The Soldier

Question 1.
Attempt a critical appreciation of The Soldier.
Answer:
Rupert Brooke is known for his war sonnets that he wrote after being enlisted in the British Army in course of the first world war. His war poems vibrate with patriotism and the euthusiasm felt by a soldier in the service of his nation.

In this sonnet, he expresses his wish to be remembered as an English soldier who even in his death conquered a small portion of the earth in a foreign land. He advances an argument which is of course logical and forceful but reminds of the wit of a metaphysical poet. Rupert Brooke says that in case of his burial in a foreign soil he will only be making another England for himself and his countrymen.

The argument is that his body, made up of the English soil, will anglicise that small portion of the foreign land. It is a wonderful argument which develops in the octave. A person represents a nation in all its details as he is brought up by its peculiar norms, values, traditions and culture. Even, in death he continues to represent his nation in a greater degree because of subtle freedom that death provides in the form of release from the body.

The sestet is even more impressive. It speaks of the heart, freed from all malice and prejudice, fused with eternity. And it will remain alive, enjoying the beauty of the experiences that the English nation gave to him. There is thus a prefound feeling of indebtedness to England that gives Such beauty and meaning to the sonnet.

Patriotism is a common feeling but it is certainly intensified in times of war, in times of foreign aggression when a person strongly feels his link with the soil of his nation. Rupert Brooke has given marvellous expression to this beautiful feeling.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Critical Appreciation of The Poem An Epitaph

Critical Appreciation of The Poem An Epitaph

Question 1.
Write down a critical appreciation of An Epitaph.
Answer:
There is a tradition in European countries to inscribe short verses on a stone tablet or on the cover of a grave in which there is a summing-up of the personality of the dead person. It is not a biographical sketch; it is a poignant write-up on chief qualities of the person.

Walter de la Mare who is known for his interesting poems on themes of childhood interests and the supernatural has written this poem about a beautiful woman who is no more. The woman was renowned for her beauty and was very popular in the west country. The poet however is skeptical of the lasting fame of the woman. Beauty is not a lasting thing, being associated with youth. As young age vanishes beauty also vanishes.

The poem has clearly a didactic strain. The poet wants beautiful women to possess noble qualities of mind and heart which will be the cause of their being remembered for a long time. There is however a grace and simplicity about the poem which gives it a Wordsworthian aura.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Critical Appreciation of The Poem Ode to Autumn

Critical Appreciation of The Poem Ode to Autumn

Question 1.
Attempt a critical appreciation of Ode to Autumn.
Answer:
About John Keats, it is said that if he had been content with only his odes he would have been acclaimed a great poet. This opinion is true as it is the judgement of a poet on the basis of creativity and not on the basis of out put. Ode to Autumn justifies the praise showered on Keats. Autumn is nowhere considered beautitul – being a season in which trees shed their leaves it has no romantic image it is identified generally with old age, chequered movement and depression.

Known for his devotion to the principle of beauty keats, in this poem, has taken up a utilitanian stand. In the beauty of autumn, in its oneness with agriculturists and farm workers keats sees a concern for practical usefulness and health in the human and natural world which only a day-dreamer can overlook.

To Keats autumn is a season of mellowing and of gradual ripening of fruits. This actually discovery of a nourishing principle in nature – She by a serious purpose of providing such fruits and grains that nourish the health of men and women. Like a true observer of details Keats even names them – during autumn apples are in full bloom, vines are laden with fruits, small buds are abundantly growing. More activity can be noticed in the village people can be seen around gramaries, swaths engaged in winnowing or glancing.

One is reminded of the festivities of spring – its music and plentifulness. Autumn has however its own atmosphere and music. This atmosphere is set by a landscape of ripening fruits, human labour and by the sky over-cast with little dots of clouds; the music is composed of the waiting sound of gnats, the loud bleatings of full-grown lambs, the singing of crickets in hedges and the soft whistling sound of robins.

There is thus enough cheerful music to sway the heart of the listencers. The poem is remarkable in its power of catching the spirit of the autumn season. Keats has loaded the poem with very accurate details of nature and human action. For the first time he seems to be building up a poem from facts as we find in Wordsworth.

The three stanzas reveal the bounty of autumn, the scenery of autumn, and its pensive music with the rarest economy of words and every picture has a definite clearness of outline not to be found in any romantic poet. The warmth of stubble-plains, the rich glow of the setting sun illumining the bus of clouds, the golden apples, the flowers full of honey – there scenes have filled the poet’s soul with peace and quiet.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Critical Appreciation of The Poem Song of Myself

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Critical Appreciation of The Poem Song of Myself

Question 1.
Write down a critical appreciation of Song of Myself.
Answer:
Deeply influenced by the Indian Upanishads Walt Whitman, the American poet, composed such poems that give us a synthetic view of man and cosmos. And yet one can notice in his poems the assertion of individuality, the self that has industriously acquired a true sense of its infinite potential.

In this poem the poet tries to engage another human being, probably a friend, in a dialogue and asks him to pay attention to the similarities that exist between man and man. The song is thus not exactly a song of the selt, but of ‘ the discovery of the identities between one and the other. The reference to the atom that is a definite constituent of everyone is to reinforce the scientific basis of the poet’s argument.

The mood of the poet is to be taken note of he is cheerful, optimitic and full of confidence. This is in a sense the general mood of the poet, forming a whole attitude towards self and the universe.

Having advanced the argument the poet enlarges upon his relations with the world around him. He says that he just enjoys wandering, looking at even the smallest things with the greatest pleasure. This pleasure is again bom of the understanding that his body and the soil from which so many natural objects, including the summer grass which he likes so much, have sprung are formed of the same atom. One can see that such an understanding belongs not to the realm of science but to the realm of spirituality especially to the teaching of the Upanishads.

There is also a complete rejection of all philosophical theories and social ideologies which tend to divide one man from another. The poet asserts his willingness to raise voice against all such divisive forces. The poem is thus a manifesto of the poet’s participation is the world of man and nature.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

 

Critical Appreciation of The Poem Sweetest Love I do not Goe

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Critical Appreciation of The Poem Sweetest Love I do not Goe

Question 1.
Write down a critical appreciation of the poem Sweetest Love, I do not go.
Answer:
John Donne, the great metaphysical poet, wrote many exciting poems which are quite radical in content and innovative in structure. There is a bold rejection of death in his poems- sometimes he firmly denies the very existence of death like a mystic who is fully convinced of the soul’s immortality, but most of the time he speaks as a lover who can find enough strength in love to reject death. It is the second attitude that is the subject of this poem and it is here that we notice Downe’s power of argument, his ability to turn every negative circumstance in his power.

The speaker of the poem is a lover who is trying to speak to his beloved after death. Knowing very well that his beloved is quite upset over this incurable 2 separation, the speaker is trying to fashion arguments against any influence of death. He plainly says that death has had no influence over his relationship with her because of the profound love that he had for her. In such a love the souls and the body are so united that death cannot sever them. In spite of death the speaker feels that he is living in the body of his beloved.

The sense of total oneness that is possible to be achieved in a relationship of love is forcefully presented by the speaker. There is Donne’s familiar mockery of the sun, the agent of change, of the flow of time, and therefore, the measure of death. That even the sun has stopped and that the imagination of the lover is speedier create new fanciful pictures of a life-after-death.

After life has been a subject of the scriptures as well. But Donne has given it a fantastic twist only to present a more colourful picture in relation to love. So the appeal of the speaker to his beloved to preserve his life that is within her makes a powerful statement of their oneness.

By using certain common motifs of his poetry Downe ensures a living unity to his individual poems through which a set of new ideas is dramatically introduced and cleverly sustained by play of logic. But within this intellectual ingenuity, the feeling of emotions cannot be denied-they appear to be deeper, less spontaneous but certainly growing stronger with every moment of reflection.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

 

Bihar Board 12th English David Copperfield Important Questions

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Bihar Board Class 12th English David Copperfield Important Questions

Question 1.
Give a detailed account of the childhood of David Copperfield.
Answer:
The childhood of David Copperfield is a story of great pain and hardship, of loss of mother and home and of such scars on mind and heart that cannot be erased.

Born posthumously, David’s only support was his affectionate mother who brought him up with great care. This bliss was short-lived. David’s mother, Clara, married one Mr. Murdstone who, in a very planned manner, created distance between the boy and the mother.

Mr. Murdstone, first of all, struck terror in the mind of David by threatening him with his use of slick. His next step was to deprive Clara of the right of running her household by inviting his sister Miss Murdstone and handing over all the charge to her.

David’s mother had earlier tried to teach the boy kindly with the result that he learnt his lessons quickly. But the same boy was so frightened by die mere presence of Mr. Murdstone and his sister that he made mistakes again and again. In order to teach firmness to Clara which was merely a pretext of isolating the boy Mr. Murdstone not only thrashed David But locked him up inside a room to which Clara was not permitted access. David remained in this position for a couple of days from where he was taken directly to a school in London.

The school Salem House did not have a proper academic character. The boys were noisy, indisciplined and completely lacking in interest in studies. The headmaster Mr. Creakle was a thoughtless person who indulged in favouritism in order to maintain a semblance of order in the institution. Steerforth, the bully of the school, incidentally became friendly to David and he was spared the hardship that other students suffered.

On his return from the school during vacations David found the atmosphere of his home even more sickly. His mother had a baby boy by then; but she had withdrawn herself entirely from every affair. David maintained a sullen silence. He could not stay for long is school as he was called to attend the funeral services of his mother who died in great misery. Mr. Murdstone did not like David to go back to his school.

He rather sent him by a factory where there were many child workers like him. David worked hard in the beginning and learnt to live independently. An important gain of this period was David’s friendship with Mr. Micawber, another factory worker whose life of poverty, bankruptcy and eventual imprisonment grade Alcides impression on the growing boy. But the conditions in the factory deteriorated and he decided to approach his great aunt, Betsy Trotwood.

These bitter experiences, however, made David conscious of the value of education and hard work. It helped him rise steadily once he let himself be guided by his great – aunt. The boy who was acutely deprived of love grew up ‘ to be a man who gave his love to all who were in need.

Question 2.
Discuss David Copperfield as a novel of child psychology.
Answer:
It is quite appropriate to view David Copperfield35 a novel of child psychology as the first part of the novel of child psychology as the first part of the novel certainly gives a detailed account of the mind and emotions of David Copper field. But is should also be noted that Charles Dickens makes these details fit into the picture of the lower middle class to which David Copperfield belongs.

In file beginning, we notice the strong attachment of David to his mother. The latter takes great care of him; it is she who is teacher as well as his nurse. Under the guidance of his mother, David makes great progress in his studies. In fact, his progress in linked as a whole to the moral support of his mother and her trust in his abilities. The entry of Mr Murdstone changes this pace of progress.

In his presence David becomes absent-minded; he cannot say his lessons properly. The result is that he starts going back in his studies, learning of a child can never be a mechanical activity. It must have a sense of purpose and these should be perfect trust between the teacher and the taught.

Lack of affection can make a child sullen and pervert. This is seen in Mr Murdstone’s treatment of David- The farmer, in his attempt to terrorize the latter, only creates a indignation in him. David would rather be thrashed than he would obey Mr Murdstone.

At school also David does hot get a favourable atmosphere-from the headmaster to the senior students^ they all bully him. His attachment to Steerforth shows David’s search for protection. Later on, he inspires total confidence in Steerforth with whom therefore he strikes a bound of friendship.

David’s nobility and gentleness are revealed in his relations with domestic. He never bothers them in any way; so they play with him and become found of him. As a child labourer, David cuts a pathetic figure. But he is heard-working and realistic. Moreover, he is gifted with a high sense of self-respect that prompts him to better his fortune by seeking help from his greataunt.

Charles Dickens thus lets us have an insight into the mind of a growing child, a prisoner of circumstance, who retains his playfulness and good humour and thrives because of them.

Question 3.
Give an account of the school that David Copper field attended.
Answer:
While even the best of schools strike fear in a child when he attends it for the first few days Salem House, the school David Copper field went to was a source of night mare through out his brief stay. From the shabby building to the teachers and students who inhabited it, everything. created a feeling of disgust – a feeling that could not have been conducive to a schedule of study.

When David entered it he found it virtually vacant, the students having not returned from holidays and the headmaster being away at sea. The classroom gave a foul smell and its walls were stained with ink.

For a few days David lived there only in the company of Mr, Mell, a school leader of peculiar habits. He was a pitiable creature, poor and utterly lacking in qualities that make a teacher. He employed his time in writing or in playing sad tunes on his whistle. The company of such a weird person only made David more melancholic.

One evening at last David was summoned by Mr. Creakle who said that he knew Mr. Murdstone as a man of character and he also knew that David was used to biting people. His use of the term character only showed his perverted nature, and his reference to Mr. Murdstone’s allegation against David showed his prejudice Needless to say, this interview only excited terror in the heart of David.

In a few days, the school hummed with life on return of the boys. David clearly remembered Tommy Traddles and J. Steerforth – the two boys having two entirely different dispositions. Traddles was weak and nervous; Steerforth was strong and had a bullying tendency.

By sharing the money that he had Davids truck friendship with Steerforth became his protector. This Steerforth even ill-treated his traders. He abused Mr. Mell and called him a beggar and the latter was’dismissed by Mr. Creakle on instigation by Steerforth.

David did learn a few things. But he did not have a pleasant experience of any teacher. Mr. Creakle, the headmaster, appeared to be a frustrated person who beat the boys not to reform them but simply to create fear in them.

Naturally, all this factual narration of a school by Charles Dickens has a purpose. He wished to make his readers aware of the condition of schools that were founded merely by a motive of earning profite. There the quality of teachers was very poor. The teachers neither taught efficiently nor could they maintain discipline. Students who turned out from such institutions could never cultivate the qualities that make a responsible citizen.

Question 4.
Describe Dickens as a social reformer.
Or
“In David Copperfield, we find the picture of Victorian society.” Discuss
Or
Dickens was “that rare type of reformer who could moralise with a smile on his lips, and mix his sermonic powers in such excellent jam that his contemporaries did not realise for a while that he was doctoring them for their good.” Discuss.
Answer:
Like GB. Shaw, Dickens is not a propagandist. Nor is he a professional ” social reformer. Whatever social reforming zeal is found in his works is the novelist’s zeal to present evil existing in the society. His suggestions for the removal of those evils are also the gifts of an artist or novelist.

Actually Dickens is primarily a great story-teller and entertainer. His popularity in his own age and even today rests on his achievements as a great entertainer. He has no delibrate intentions of preaching any maxims from the pulpit. His main concern in writing his novels is to cater to the demands and expectations of the reading public of his day, and keep it interested in his novels.

So as to make the readers wait anxiously for the next issue of the narrative, thereby enhancing his saies. Dickens is a typical Victorian. He has been affected by the dominant features , of the contemporary society. He has seen the social, political, economic and educational drawbacks of the Victorian society and has raised his voice against them through the medium of humour and satire.

He does not fire shots at his society directly, but he does it with a smile on his lips. He tries his best to grouse the public conscience to the evil ramparts so that healthy reforms can be introduced. He does not believe in the effectiveness of legal machinery. He realises that no real improvement can be introduced through parliamentry legislation.

The public itself must be aware of the defects and the need to try and get out of them. His aim is to present all the weaknesses of the Victorian society through his novels.

Dickens is a great humanitarian. He harnesses his pen for the amelioration of the miserable and pathetic conditions of the poor factory workers, little children groaning under the whips of tyrannical school-masters, litigants moving about law courts without getting any justice and prisoners subjected 1 to the hardships of rigorous prison life.

In his novel, Dickens tries to reform his society by satirising the injustice of the poor laws, delays in administration of justice, the cruelties of school-masters and imprisonment for debts and so on.

Thus, we can say that Dickens is a great social reformer. He has exposed the drawbacks and evils of the Victorian society. His merit as a social reformer lies in the fact that he can moralise with a smile on his lips and mix his sermonic powers in such excellent jam, that his contemporaries do not realise for a while that he is doctoring them for their good. ‘

Question 5.
Write a note on the autobiographical element in Dickens’ novel David Copperfield.
Or
“The pen that wrote David Copperfield was after dipped in its own blood.” Discuss.
Or
“David Copperfield is in great part autobiographical.” Discuss.
Or
Describe David Copperfield as an autobiographical novel.
Answer:
David Copperfield is one of the best creations of Charles Dickens. lt is an autobiographical novel. Its story is narrated by the novelist in the first person. The details in the novel and several of the places, persons and situations are related to the life of the novelist. Regarding this novel, Dickens himself wrote. “Of all my books I like this the best. I have in my heart the favourite child and his name is David Copperfield.”

David Copperfield is the hero of the novel. But he is none else but Dickens himself. At the age of ten, David was put to work by his callous step father. Like Dickens, he felt degraded at having to mix with boys of his own age whom he did not consider his social equals.

Like David, Dickens was also first taught at home by his mother and was later sent to the Wellington House Academy of Mr. Jones where he had experiences like those of David at Mr. Creakle’s school.

The school master of David Copperfield resembles the worthless and brutal head master of the Wellington House Academy which Dickens attended at the age of fifteen. Like David, Dickens also had to quit the school after a brief stay and take up a menial job.

We find some similarities between the careers of David and Dickens. Like David, Dickens also took to the legal profession and like him again Dickens gave it up. He, then, learnt short hand and became a reporter. Dickens’ experiences as a stenographer and his success as a novelist are also the part of David’s experiences.

Dickens wrote a few of his novels in foreign countries. He went to Italy in 1844 and Switzerland in 1846. David also visited Italy and in the later period of life he settled in Switzerland to write his novels.

Besides these similarities, there are several emotional similarities between David and Dickens. For instance, David’s flight from the firm of Murdstone and Grins by may be taken to be representation of a similar flight of which Dickens must have frequently dreamed, when horrors of his menial job were too much for him.

Betsey Trotwood may be taken to be the longed-for fairy god-mother. Indeed, Mr. Murdstone, Miss Murdstone, Mr. and Mrs. Micawber may be said to represent the different facets of his parent’s personality, as they must have appeared to the suffering child.

David’s education with Dr. Strong, his marriage first with Dora and then with Agnes, may all be interpreted as examples of wish fulfillnents. What Dickenes could not enjoy in life, he enjoys vicariously in the novels.

There is a close similarity between the Micawber and Dicken’s parents. Micawbers are as poor as Dickens, own parents. Micawber’s optimism, his shiftlessness, his irresponsibility, his grandiloquent way of speaking, were also the important traits of the character of Dickens’ father.

Like Micawber, Dicken’s father was also in debt and their creditors come to them at all hours. Like him the father of Dickens was arrested for debt and sent to prison. As Dickens went to the prison for visiting his father in the same way little David also visits Mr. Micawber. Thus above mentioned observations make it clear that David Copperfield is an autobiographical novel.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Show your acquaintance with the Poem Adlestrop

Show your acquaintance with the Poem Adlestrop

Question 1.
Show your acquaintance with the poem Adlestrop.
Answer:
There are tourist destinations all over the world that are known for their scenic beauty. But even a remote place, rather our own locality, may have spots of great beauty. The poet notices such a spot when his train stopped at Adlestrop and he saw a cluster of English flowers and experienced a moment of sheer enjoyment. The poem, in a way, reminds us of The Daffodils of Wordsworth. Adlestrop, though not so famous, is loaded with the same meaning.

The poem’s progress is very natural. In course of his journey in June by an express train the poet alights on the platform of Adlestrop. He is the only one to do so. He takes look at the place and is rewarded by a sight of willows, herbs, as tretch of grassland. He could also hear the cry of haycocks. When he looked upwards he could see white clouds, the sky taking a white hue on account of them.

The poem is fusion of realistic detail and aesthetic taste. Everything is ordinary, but the stopping of the train is perhaps to give him a moment of a life time experience such as Wordsworth and Robert Frost had.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

 

Critical Appreciation of The Poem Everyone Sang

Critical Appreciation of The Poem Everyone Sang

Question 1.
Write a critical appreciation of Everyone sang.
Answer:
In this poem Siegfried Sassoon, who himself joined First world war and wrote various volumes of lyrics and satires against war and war activities, records the general feeling of joy when on 11 November, 1918, the war came to I an end and armistice was declared.

The poem expresses the joy that everyone, particularly the soldiers in the battle field, felt when the news of armistice came. The poet himself experienced a happiness that could be compared to the bliss of the caged birds who suddenly . had been liberated and set flying wildly on their wings across the white orchards and dark green fields. The cage of the war had imprisoned this birds-the soldiers-and now they had been freed. Their happiness, indeed, is great and spreading over a large canvas.

‘Prisoned birds’ in this stanza is a very powerful simile. Birds have everywhere been treated as symbols of freedom. But circumstances are sometimes very pressing for them as well. On being trapped by hunters and later on being put into cages birds lose their freedom.

This loss is felt in every gesture of theirs, in their circumscribed movement and their voice. The soldiers were in the same predicament, that is, they were prisoners of circumstance, forgetting their natural gentleness and engaged in making war. The declaration of armistice restored their natural selves and mentally they were in a state of flight, free, unencumbered flight.

In the second stanza the poet moves from delight to beauty and notes that there is a certain upliftment in this music and an artistic beauty set on it, like the setting sun which pours its golden splendour all around. Now the poet tells us that his joy is deeper than the joy felt by birds. It is a silent joy, and it is a joy more permanent than those of birds.

The poem is a unique recollection of powerful emotions. It is mainly about restoration of peace that has made everyone sing out in rejoicing. Though short, it has an ordered Structure and the very sound of words brings out the poet’s feelings.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Critical Appreciation of The Poem The Daffodils

Critical Appreciation of The Poem The Daffodils

Question 1.
Show your appreciation of The Daffodils.
Answer:
A flower necessarily captures our attention by its colour, symmetry and fragrance. And when there is a cluster of flowers we are bound to be overwhelmed by an indescribable feeling of ecsatasy. Wordsworth shares such a marvelous moment with us.

As was his habit he was wandering alone somewhere in Lake District when he came by a rare sight — thousands of daffodils dancing under the impact of breeze by the side of a pond. Daffodils are ordinary small yellow flowers; but their being in such abundance and in such a festive mood made a deep impression on Wordsworth’s consciousness.

The memory of these daffodils became a means of restoring the poet’s cheerfulness and energy. The poem is an exploration of the meaning of Nature. It has a bounty to offer to careful eyes and mind; things are not so apart and separate as they seem, they are integral to our consciousness and being.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Show your acquaintance with the Poem The Daffodils

Show your acquaintance with the Poem The Daffodils

Question 1.
Show your acquaintance with the poem “The Daffodils.”
Answer:
Wordsworth has been called the greatest poet of Nature. This does not mean that his poetry is only about trees, forests, hills valleys. This great Romantic poet has a comprehensive philsophic vision. This vision includes the hole cosmos of which man and nature are but parts. Thus Wordsworth is more a poet of man than of nature. In any case, he does not see man apart from Nature.

Real knowledge and wisdom are born out of man’s communion with nature. Thus Wordsworth is always the hero of his poem. He explores meaning in man’s life and finds it only in man’s communion with nature. This poet even reaches god-head through nature. Nature is as much a scripture (MuPta ti*0 of God as is the Bible.

True, in The Daffodils the poet gives the picture of nature in a few of its aspects. At the centre are the golden daffodils dancing and tossing their heads along the edge of the Grasmere lake. There is the gentle wind that gives them motion to dance. The waves in the water of the lake are also dancing.

Then there are the clouds high up over the valley and the hills. Then there is the comparison of the unending line of daffodils with the unending line of the milkyway made up of twinkling stars. Then at the focal point is the poet himself with a deep concern :

I agzed and gazed but little thought
What wealth the show to me had brought.

That is exploring a meaning in Nature. Wordsworth of course finds it. In the school of nature he learns geat truths and wisdom. He developes a philosophic mind that can see beyond the present and even beyond the terrestrial existence. Thus when he is lonely and depressed and the present is shorn of all meaning, the past comes to his rescue.

The experience Of the past come into the present and the poet is saved from depression and lineliness. The sights of the past as of the daffodils flash on his inner eyes.

And then my heart with pleasure fills.
And dances with the daffodils.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Critical Appreciation of The Poem If

Critical Appreciation of The Poem If

Question 1.
Write a critical appreciation of IF.
Answer:
Rudyard Kipling is known as an imperialist writer. But is some of his writing he reveals lover for Indian people and landscape.

He wrote a few didactic poems also. If is a didactic poem-in the form of an address of a father to his son. The father is an experienced person and he wishes to impart such basic lessons that may help his son in leading a blameless life. The emphasis of the father is on the importance of integrity and the fulfillment of one’s chosen mission in the face of all difficulties.

He starts by saying that the purity of thought and action is the key of success. Everything must be done on a rational basis, taking into account the practical value of a thing. It is good to have personal goals, but they should be harmonized with social values. After all man’s standing is social-he cannot disregard society though he may work for eradication of social evils.

Kipling has a very realistic view of the world. The world is not a pleasant place nor are the people always simple and good. There may be obstruction to one’s plans form others. To overcome these one needs strong conviction and a determination to face every challenge.

In the end, Kipling lets the father elaborate upon the value of circumspection and goodness. Only by right efforts one can contribute to the making of a better world.