Bihar Board 12th English Article Writing Important Questions

Bihar Board Class 12th English Article Writing Important Questions

Question 1.
Write an article in favour of holding annual book fairs.
Like an exhibition a book fair is also a great promotional event, providing opportuinity to residents of a small town or city to have a direct view of the material they need and to make a balanced purchase of the old and the new. Especially, the book fairs help recent publications reach the readers without much delay.

Formerly, only metropolitan cities in India hosted book fairs because they had the required space and the transport facilities. The number of readers was there was also higher than in smaller towns. But recently book fairs are being I organised in many state capitals.

Over the last fifteen years or so book fairs have become an annual feature in Patna, eliciting very positive response not only from students and academics of patna but also from various cross-sections of the society from the nearby towns and villages. On Sundays or on holidays the number of visitors is unusually high and they can be seen returning with beaming, faces.

A very distinctive feature of the book fair is the opportunity to have interaction with famous writers over reading sessions. To hear these writers reciting their short stories or poems and express their opinion on literary issues is a pleasure which is a bonus for readers. This enhances comprehension, corrects literary taste and provides a new stimulus for reading. Secondly, housewives and children also get something for themselves in book fairs.

In a country like India where books are reverently treated an annual book fair has great educational value. Books, being more comprehensive and more durable than other mediums of instruction, really need some patronage which is provided by a book fair.

Question 2.
Moral and spiritual education to young men and women is also essential. Write an article on this topic in about 200 words.
A number of psychological and behavioral problems faced by the young men and women today is due to lack of moral and spiritual education. Whereas Harvard and Yale universities are inviting men from spiritual and religious centres of India, in our own country schools, colleges and universities are simply insensitive to this great need.

There is a certainly a need of professional courses and vocational training which have to be imported by educational institutions. But students must also learn about self and the principles of private and public conduct. They must have a knowledge of the great texts of religion.

They have to understand that whatever they aspire for can be possible only through the grace of God. They must be ambitious, but at the same time they have to learn the principle of contentment. While it is good to think seriously about career, it is no less important to know that the basic goal of life is self-realization which can be attained by purity, selflessness and concern for the underprivileged.

A way of life that is in harmony with social and national traditions is far more satisfactory than a senseless copying of foreign cultures. Such a moral and spiritual training can alone prepare youth power that will play a constructive role in the building of a powerful and prosperous nation.

Question 3.
Write an article for your school magazine justifying the need for education of girls in the country for national development.
(word limit: 200 words).
The development of India will never be complete if half of its population, that is, the female population remains in the grip of illiteracy and superstitions. Can we imagine an educated farmer trying to adopt scientific ways of farming when his wife can neither read nor write and is brought up in the traditional ways ? The women in cities are getting educated and are taking up jobs as teachers, administrators, lawyers, engineers etc. There is thus a further reason to give a uniform look to India and provide education to girls in – villages and small towns.

An educated girl will be mentally fully equipped to attend to her house hold duties also more efficiently. She has knowledge of child-rearing, first aid, hygienic living and the changing conditions of the world. She can thus become a partner of her husband in the real sense of the term .

She can share his anxieties in the world of profession and politics and give him a piece of advice or two. Education of girls will thus transform Indian homes and social lives-the women, equipped with modem knowledge, will make India a vibrant nation that can take firm steps to progress and modernity. Let us shed our pijudices against the girl child and give her the best of education in the interest of national development.

Question 4.
You have found that in many families the old people are badly neglected. Write an article in 200 words to be published in a newspaper, highlighting this problem and suggesting remedies.
No body would object to the fact that the world belongs to the young. But it would be very sad to neglect the old men and women who have shaped the youth with their blood and sweat.

And it is realy shocking these days to. see how the old members of the family are treated – they are left in the shabbiest of rooms, they are called out only at meal times, they are forced to watch such programmes on television which they do not like and nobody finds time to talk to them, which they love vety much. Actually, the old people are seen as a liability and as an article that is no longer of use. Such an attitude is utterly painful and shameful.

We cannot go back in time. But it is our duty to maintain a parents respectful attitude towards our parents and grand parents. They should not be left confined to their small rooms. They should be consulted in every important family affair and their advice should be needed. Children should be encouraged to take care of them, to be near them and to benefit from their experience.

In absence of sympathy and care the old people are today surviving on medicines. They feel terribly lovely and unwanted. It is a bad over for our family life-we have to bring back cheer to the faces of the old people and restore their position by taking interest in them and paying due respect to them.

Question 5.
For your school magazine write an article in about 200 words about the craze in young people for fast food which is a serious health hazard.
It is a cammon sight these days to see young boys and girls devouring platefuls of fast food in shopping complexes, restaurants and canteens.

In spite of warnings issued by physicians in health columns in newspapers and TV show the tendency to consume fast food is increasing. On the one hand the youth are attracted to health clubs and yoga and on the other they are ruining their health by eating all sorts of pizzas, hamburgers and spiced chicken curry.

An important reason is that the young people because of a busy schedule leave their homes early and have little time to eat a proper breakfast. A home made breakfast consisting of toast, chapatis, vegetables and a cup of milk would certainly keep them satisfied and be a natural diferrent against this

craze. Moreover, spices and roasting of food items generally creates a sort of addiction. There is thus need of self-discipline also the curb this. Unless this tendency is kept in check the young people will find that they have developed deficiencies in calcium and protein that could lead to serious deseases of bone and heart.

They should therefore be regular in their food habits. Parents must also be careful in cooking such things that could give a pleasure to the palates of the young people and, orient them towards home-made delicious.

Question 6.
Write for your school magazine an article in about 200 words suggesting the means of combating terrorism.
Planned attacks by terrorists on airports, schools, temples and government offices all over the world have made our life very grim. It is perhaps, the biggest problem of the new millennium which requires the utmost skill and tact, resources and force of army men as well as civilians to tackle it.

The major task is to provide detailed information to the civilians regarding the modus operandi of terrorists to that they could no longer remain helpless. A civilian cannot carry bombs and ammunition at all hours; but at least he can be alert, physically and mentally prepared to face such a challenge.

On a number of occasions sheer tact and courage are helpful. The second thing is to lay down a security network that could cover all the principal buildings and monuments in metropolitian cities. Terrorists aim to strike big; and their priqrity is to create a feeling of collapse of law and order. This they achieve easily when they attack an army unit, ambush military vans or target a building of a secretariat.

Special training to army men in which every information is monitored through international agencies will be also of great use. Many countries are using different kinds of gadgets for keeping watch over the activities of terrorists. There is an urgent need to procure such tools and upgrade our detective and warning systems.

Question 7.
Write an article in about 200 words on the role of civilians in disaster management which can be published in a newspaper.
In future the civilians will be playing a very big role in disaster management in every country particularly in India where the administrative resources are limited the civilians will be called upon to tackle many responsibilities in times of flash floods, earthquakes, terrorist attacks and other emergencies.

It is true that every person can to some extent manage his affairs in such emergencies. But when something big and terrible strikes a city there is a need to coordinate government efforts with collective efforts of the civilian population as well. It requires teamwork, familiarity with modem techniques and tools and

above all a little professional training. Thus it is very important to start short-duration a courses for common men. and women to operate communication times, provide first and to victims, make temporary shelters and maintain supply of food and water in times of crisis.

They should hold meetings regularly and maintain a stock of items needed by people in such crisis. If this programme is organised properly it will be a great assistance to the state and the central governments and also to the affected people of a locality. Younger people must certainly be provided specialized training in different areas for this purpose.

Question 8.
Write for your school magazine an article in about 200 words on the visit of a great musical personality in your school.
The visit of Amjad Ali Khan, the great sitar-player of India, to our school has had the effect of a quiet revolution. His graceful personality together with his soulful playing of sitar has given in glimpses of an aspect of life w’ith which we were not familiar at all.

In the first place when he folded his hands in a gentle, shy namaste before us from the dias we just bowed our heads in reverence. His presence naturally inspired respect. The simple, but artistically designed, Kurta and Pyjama never looked so appealing before. After bowing down to the sitar and remembering his guru in a very polite in vocation he remained seated for two hours, his fingers weaving fantascies of music and silence on the sitar.

The harmonious sounds lifted our spirit, the notes reaching a crescendo and remaining transfixed at that high point for a few seconds before gently subsiding to a lower pitch. For most of thus it was the first introduction to Indian classical music and the most memorable.

From elders to the youngest of children sat through this recital, spellbound and motionless. At the end of the function the great musician blessed us and spoke briefly on the importance of music in building up the great culture of India. Many of us at that very moment decided to learn more about classical, music and even learn to play Indian musical instruments.

Question 9.
Write an article in favour of liberalisation of economy ? about 200 words.
Now that man has overcome time and distance, no country can afford to live in isolation. A further result of this narrowing of distance has been the interlinking of economy of one nation with that of the other. And in such a situation only that country can make fast economic progress, which has well integrated itself to the global economy.

That is, there has to be a conscious effort behind it. India’s efforts in this direction started when Sri Narsimha Rao was the Prime Minister. He started what is known as the liberalisation, of economy.

The first important consequence of this venture was that leading multinationals made huge investments in automobiles, computers, telecommunications, electronics. Formerly there were certain sectors of economy over which there was control of public sector.

After liberalisation all these sectors were thrown open to competition. A wave of reforms swept through the country and industrial gaints of the world took advantage of this which brought benefits to common men of India. They could have industrial goods at a competitive price in the domestic market.

Many native industrialists could come up with new plans and strategies. Behind the multi-dimensional growth of Reliance, Bajaj, Mahindra and Mahindra is the support of schemes and policies intiated under liberalisation. The situation is such now that no political party can go against it and interfere with the process of growth and development.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Bihar Board 12th English Group Discussion Important Questions

Bihar Board Class 12th English Group Discussion Important Questions

1. Topic—Nuclear family is a better option them die joint family:

Srikant — Friends, I have just returned after a visit to my maternal grand father in the village where he is living with his two sons and their children. I found that there was a chaos in the house—the children were noisy and indisciplained, the elders passed more time in idle gossip than in meaningful activities. I think all this was due to a joint family system is which number affected the quality of life. A nuclear family in the need of the hour.

Sachin — I cannot agree, friends, with the conclusion of Srikant. He has noticed only the superficialities. In a joint family the bond between the elders and the younger people is stronger. And although children may appear to be

pampered and noisy they learn their duties and responsibilities at an earlier stage. For a long time joint family has prevailed in many countries and in India with great success, making rich contribution to culture and tradition.

Tarun — But Sachin overlooks the needs of the modem age. Since people are working in towns and metropolitan cities they have neither the space nor the resources to run a joint family. And it is not desirable either. The age of competition requires children to be more highly educated which in turn requires more expenses. In a joint family the educational and hygienic needs of the people cannot be taken care of.

Rajendra — What Tarun has said about the compulsions of the modem age is true. But we must understand that the very concept of family requires a combination of the elders and the young people which can be truely maintained in a joint family system.

2. Topic—Story-telling is an effective way of teaching.

Rajendra — Friends, I don think that story-telling can be used as a means of teaching. There are hundreds of subjects for which story-telling cannot be used. For instance, how can a teacher use stories for teaching mathematics, physics and biology ? It would be ridiculous to present scientific facts in the form of stories.

Srikant — I see your point. But stories can be effectively used to convey moral lessons and historical details. I heard a number of stories from my grand mother. I still remember them because in those stories of birds, beasts, princes, gods and goddesses there was always a powerful human appeal. Those were stories which gave me an insight into weaknesses and strength of man. They taught me to be guided by moral considerations in all circumstances.

Tarun — Friends, I would like to remind you of Panchtantra, a book whose stories are found in fables of many countries of world. The book was planned with a purpose of imparting education to four princes who had little inclination for study. It is said that after they heard those stories they were greatly changed. They became men of culture and learning and acquired competence of handling royal administration.

Sachin — The popularity of novels and short stories in this age of science proves the same. We don’t turn to them for the sake of entertainment alone. They give us an account of the changes in the society and the attitude of men and women and shape our sensibility.

3. Topic — The company of Nature is most soothing.

Tarun — Friends, I believe that in order to remove our tensions we must go to places close to mountains, rivers or forests and stay there for a couple of days. The beauty and the silence of such spots fill us with a sense of calm and give strength to us.

Sachin — Absolutely true. Last year we went to Almora where the father of a friend of mine was transferred. The town is surrounded by the peaks of the Himalays and is frill of pine trees. We spent our days just wandering around the forest and the mountains. Their very sight lifted our spirits.

Rajendra – it is no wonder our poets have always tried to capture the beauty of nature in words. Wordsworth, the English poet, lived throughout in the company of nature. The small villages, the rivers, the hills and the wild flowers gave him lofty thoughts. In India also our pilgrimages are located in beautiful natural surroundings. My grand father tells us eloquently about his joumey to Kedamath and Badrinath through icy rivers and hot springs, through cloudy sky arid snow-capped peaks of the Himalayas.

Srikant – So nice of you, Rajendra, to remind me of the pilgrimages. We went to Puri during the last Durga Puja. Of coures, we visited the temple of Sri Jagannath. But the sea fascinated us. We liked to walk on the sands, watch the tides rising and falling, taking dip in the sea. And yet we were not tired of it. There was in it a beauty that we discovered afresh every moment.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Bihar Board 12th English Paragraph Writing Important Questions

Bihar Board Class 12th English Paragraph Writing Important Questions

1. Role Of Police In Civil Society

In all civil societies the police in deployed to maintain law and order since there are elements who try to disrupt it by criminal acts. This is so because no civil society is perfect—some people are left behind in education and economic progress, the chief factors that force people to indulge in criminal activities.

The police has, therefore, several tasks to perform in the first place it has to create an atmosphere in which people should develop respect for the law of the nation; secondly, after some crime has been committed the police has to investigate it and book the culprit. But its task is not over as yet; it has then to satisfy the judiciary about the involvement of the person or persons in the crime by producing evidence.

In performance of all these tasks the police is supposed to behave in a dignified manner formerly, the policemen were supposed to be tough both physically and mentally. This conception has given way to novel expectations like the policemen to be sober and decent and to be engaged in developmental activities.

2. Rome Was Not Built In A Day

Any great thing cannot be achieved in a single day. It takes years of toil to achieve something great. The story of Rome is not the saga of a day. It is woven out of die patient tears and smiles of the people. It is the result of sufferings and sacrifices.

It is true of everything good, great and enduring. People cannot get anything precious by a mere chance. Newton’s scientific achievements took him several years to explore what Was hidden. Likewise, a remarkable success proceeds from labour, determination and years of patient sufferings.

3. Might Is Right

In this world we find that might is right. A strong man oppresses the weak one. He breaks the cannons of morality. He defies authority. He becomes powerful. No one dares to intervene. This rule also applies to the strong nations of the world. The strong nations overrun small nations. They seize the rights of those who do not follow their policy. They do not care for world opinion. They keep their enemies under subjection regardless of the codes of ethics. They brook no interference. They flout the will of people, stiffle the voice of humanity. The world stands against. So it is correct to say that might is right.

4. Education Of A Girl Child

Education of a girl child is becoming a major programme in all developing countries today, particularly in India. It is well-known that reformers and political activities of the freedom struggle paid great attention to women’s education. They motivated people to take serious interest in the education of girls without which, they emphasized, there could be no progress of India.

In the last decade, the Government of India has taken up several measures to expand the base of education to girls, particularly in rural areas and slums in cities and towns. Poverty being the greatest obstacle, the government has initiated measures for enrolment of girl students. The Government of Bihar recently has launched a seheme of providing bicycles to all girl students in villages as well as in towns.

This has yielded concrete results- it has helped cultivate positive personality traits such as self-confidence, independence and physical fitness. Many NGOS are also working in this field, creating awareness of the need of education in securing employment and overall well – being of women The coming years are bound to see further increase in the education of girls who will become agents of change and progress in Indian society.

5. Honesty Is The Best Policy

Honesty is an invaluable quality of man. It is a principle, not a policy. Policies change. But principles do not change. It is needed in every walk of life. A businessman cannot flourish if he is not honest in his dealings with his customers. He may earn much wealth but this will be temporary.

His true wealth and progress lie in his honesty. Only an honest businessman survives in the market. Similarly, a dishonest politician cannot win the faith of the people. He cannot be a north star, but a falling star. An honest man may be victim of poverty. But he lives a happy life. He deserves our respect. Thus, it is right to say that honesty is the best policy:

6. Bliss Of Solitude

While no same person can live in complete loneliness for a long time moments of solitude are essential for introspection arid calm enjoyment of the beauty of nature and of inner peace. Wordsworth is so far the only poet to have celebrated the virtues of solitude. In his poem The Daffodils he speaks of the moment of solitude when the scene of the dancing daffodils flashes upon the inward eye.

Although it is something quite extraordinary in respect of Wordsworth, a poet given to reflection over the beauty of nature, the same is true of ordinary men and women also. In solitude a person is free from all agitating thoughts and impulses.

Since there is nobody to distract or disturb the current of his thoughts he realizes that in such moments the mind devells at pleasant memories, nature, the bounties of God and the beauty of life. The ideas regarding the above subjects come to his mind gradually but definitely in a very- calm fashion. Solitude thus leads man to a state of bliss.

7. Health Is Wealth

No one can deny the fact that health is wealth. Money is a source of pleasure. But only a healthy man can enjoy these pleasures. If a man is ill, he cannot enjoy the delights of life. A sickly man finds his life dull and insipid. Neither food nor money can give him any excitement. A healthy man is always happy. He wears a cheerful look. He likes even simple food. Even a bare cot brings him sweet sleep. He is hopeful. He is bubbling with energy. He finds the treasure of joys and beauties scattered every where. Life to him is no vale of tears. It is a ringing stream of laughter.

8. Slow And Steady Wins The Race Or, Haste Makes Waste

Success does not depend on haste or hurry. The key to success is sustained industry. Irregular work leads one to failure. Sustained attempts lead us to success. The race between a hare and a tortoise is an example of this truth. The hare runs fast. It gets ahead of the tortoise. It stops for a rest. The tortoise cannot run fast. It moves slow . It moves slowly but steady. It wins the race. This shows that success is the result of sustained industry. One should work steadily to achieve success.

9. Art Of Good Writing

The first thing to learn about the art of good writing is to keep one’s mind clear about the points of the topic. Clarity of mind helps a person organise his thoughts systematically—it provides a situation in which the person can select appropriate words for the thoughts that arise in his mind.

The next step would be to form a style for the subject in imitation of a good model. In the beginning a model acts as a perfect guide in moderating the tone and content of the writing. Afterwards, it would be possible to reflect critically and to form an individual style of one’s own.

There is no need to worry about ostentation or rhetoric which Iriay rather obstruct the natural flow of thoughts. A simple style consisting of appropriate words is always effective. This is the formula adopted by even eminent writers. In the last it would be advisable to use a modem form—it renders the subject intelligible and widens the compass of communication.

10. Where There Is Will, There Is A Way

Will power is necessary for exploration. Unless a man has will power, he will try to find out the way. A man cannot be learned if he does not have the will. Everything does not come by chance or luck. Labour is a key to success. Labour is not possible without will. For success, students must have a will to study.

People can achieve success in life if they are willing to work. All inventions and discoveries are due to the will of human beings. If people are determined, they can explore different avenues—they can explore the Surface of the earth and gather pearls from the bottom of the sea.

11. No Risk, No Gain
Or, Try, Try Again
Or, No Gains Without Pains
Or, Only The Brave Deserve The Fair
Or, Nothing Venture, Nothing Gain
Or, Patience Pays In The Long Run
Or, Failures Are But Pillars Of Success

Fortune is the reward of bravery. Fortune does not smile upon those who are weaklings and shaky. Shaky people dare not face the hazards of life. They fear trials and tribulations as children fear ghosts in the darkness. Those who want fortune to smile on them must need be plucky.

They must take risks. Unless they venture, they can gain nothing. Brave men tilt the balance in adverse situations to their favour. By their courage, they can turn the course of events. Such people move the world. They win the prize. They can dive to the bottom of the sea to gather pearls. Fortune favours such daring people. They may falter and fail. But each failure, gives them new insight, new experience. These failures turn out to be the. pillars of success.

12. All That Glitters Is Not Gold Or, Appearances Are Deceptive

We are aware of the fact that gold glitters and it is a valuable thing but it is not true of all glittering objects. There are many things in this world, that are bright in look but they have no worth. There are many persons who speak sweetly and pose to be very good friends. But in reality they have poison in their hearts.

They do not mean what they say. They show their poses and try to cover up their real intention. We are deceived. We take them at their word. Thus we can say that the real worth of a man cannot be determined by what he says; it can be determined only by what he does.

13. As You Sow, So You Reap

Everybody knows that if he sows bad seeds, he cannot expect to reap a rich harvest. In the same w$y bad actions always produce bad results. If you do a good turn, you are paid back in the same coin. If you go down the wrong road you lose face. If you touch fire, your finger will be burnt. If you expose yourself to the chilly air, you catch cold.

If you drink excess, you stagger and stumble. No good, then, is served by taking to foul means. The gain is purely temporary. The wicked fellow seems to prosper. It is an illusion. He is punished by God. He wears a sihile, but his heart does bleed. He goes the Macbeth way. But a virtuous man gets rich rewards here and hereafter. His actions give him glory. He becomes immortal.

14. Intellectual Freedom

Only when there is no pressure on mind it can function properly. It can then sort out ideas, observe things and facts and help a person take correct decisions. But we all know that social institutions and prejudices as well as scholastic modes and practices tend to exert an adverse influence on human mind in all parts of the world.

A child, a teenager and even a grown up person is subjected to multiple pressure which results in stereotyped ideas and nations. Therefore in all progressive societies much importance is attached to intellectual freedom. All that obstructs the functioning of mind is clearly identified and people are encouraged to think in a constructive fashion at the earliest stage.

The teaching of logic in all ancient institutions is a testimomy to this fact. In the present age the proof of intellectual feedom can be seen in the realm of science where every scientist is encouraged to be sceptical of old theories and advance independently into his area of research.

15. Labour Never Goes In Vain

The given proverb has been in vogue for a long time in this world. Honest labour is always rewarded. It works like magic. The man who labours hard gets success. But idle talkers do little. They show themselves to be busy. They fail miserably. On the other hand, those who labour while’ others sleep succeed.

They devote themselves to their work. They suffer but stand firm. They continue to work till they achieve what they crave for. Trials and tribulations do not dampen their spirit. Facing all that befalls them, they work on and on. Their labour is rewarded at last.

16. Cut Your Coat According To Your Cloth Or, Waste Not, Want Not

Man should live within his means. Wasteful expenditure leads to disaster. You should not exhaust your resources. You must save something against a rainy day. If you do not cut your coat according to your cloth, you soon come to grief. You beg and borrow . You, thus, shame yourself. You are chased by the money lender.

You vainly try to escape him. He exacts a high rate of interest. You are thus fleeced. Little do you realise that waste brings want. The more extravagant you are, the more money you need. You are losqr in the bargain. Then why should you live beyond your means ?

17. Birds Of The Same Feather Flock Together Or, A Man Is Known By The Company He Keeps

Man is a social animal. He must have company. And usually he seeks the company of his equals. Therefore, persons of the same profession, or principle, or character generally gather together.

Indeed, persons of similar taste and temperament get along quite nicely. For instance, an honest man seeks the company of upright persons. A lazy person is at home with idle ones, and a criminal with men of ill repute.

Thus, a knowledge of the company of a man will let you know what type of man he is. It is a sure method of judging his character. For, a virtuous man will not be found in the company of sinners, nor sinners in the company of men of virtue. Need we then, add that a man is known by the company he keeps ?

18. United We Stand, Divided We Fall Or, Unity Is Strength Or, Union Is Strength

United we stand, divided we fall. One cannot work wonders alone. He can ao so if he is backed by others. If a man is alone and single, he is helpless. Similarly, a nation is strong if the countrymen are united. If they are divided the v- country becomes weak. It is easier to break a stick but impossible to break a undle of sticks.

By co-operation, a hard work becomes easy. A team without ‘-operation cannot beat the opponents. In this way the safety of a nation opends on unity. Division brings about the downfall of the country. So, it is correct to say that union is strength.

19. Time And Tide Wait For No Man
Or, Make Hay While The Sun Shines
Or, Take Time By The Forelock
Or, Time Is Money
Or, A Stitch In Time Saves Nine

It is said that man should use his time in a proper way. It is the key to savings and success. A hole in a shirt may be mended easily. It will cost very little. If the hole is not mended immediately, it will widen and damage the whole shirt. The bright sunny weather can help us to prepare hay but a cloudy weather cannot.

That is if something is left uncared for one has to pay for it heavily. Everything, however insignificant it may be, deserves proper care. Lessons prepared in time prevent difficulties afterwards. A small leak sinks a great ship unless it is stopped timely. We are to be, therefore, very careful in the use of time. We should not allow golden opportunities to slip off. We are to take time by the forelock remembering that time and tide wait for none.

20. Self- Help Is The Best Help Or, Heaven Helps Those Who Help Themselves

No one can face difficulties unless he learns to depend on himself. The habit of defending one’s self, a determination to find one’s resources within one’s self, develops strength.

Crutches were intended for the crippled, not for able-bodied young people. Whoever attempts to go through life on mental crutches will not go far. He will never be very successful. The pampered youth, who is not obliged to work rarely discovers what is there in him. But one who makes the best use of the powers God has given one and puts one’s own shoulder to the wheels deserves heaven’s grace.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions


Bihar Board 12th English Letter and Application Writing Important Questions

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Bihar Board Class 12th English Letter and Application Writing Important Questions

Question 1.
Write a letter to the editor of a local daily newspaper complaining about the neglect of the roads and drains in your locality.

Bihar Sharif

The Editor
The Times of India
I beg to draw the attention of the authorities concerned to the miserable condition of road and drains. All the roads and drains at Bihar Sharif tell the sad tale of disrepair. When it rains, roads turn into pools and poodles. Drains become rivulets of dirty water. People have to face many difficulties in crossing the roads.

They have to wade through knee-deep water. At times, rickshaws carrying passengers turn turtle. Stagnant water on roads breeds the germs of diseases. Therefore, it is requested that steps be taken for improvement of drains and roads.

Yours faithfully,
Pankaj Kumar.

Question 2.
Write an application to the Principal for grant of a full-free studentship/help from the poor fund.
The Principal
College of Commerce
Kankar Bagh (Patna)
Subject— Regarding my free-studentship
Most humbly and respectfully I beg to say a few following lines for your kind consideration. I am a student of your college. My economic condition is not sound. My father always remains ill. He is too weak to work. I have to support my family consisting of ten members by coaching some students. Now I am not in a position to meet my expenses of my studies at College. Besides, I have done well at terminal examination. I have an earnest desire to continue my studies.
This ambition cannot be fulfilled unless I get some help from you. Therefore, you are requested to grant me full fee-studentship or Rs. 300 from the Poor Boys Fund. For this act of kindness, I shall ever be grateful to you.
Thanking you.

Yours obediently,
Subhash Kumar
Roll No-25

Question 3.
Write a letter to your friend describing a place of historical important


My dear Kailash,
lam quite well here. I hope you to be the same. I have just returned from my college tour. This time we decided to visit Nalanda, Rajgir, and Pawapuri. We hired a minibus and reached Pawapuri. As you know Pawapuri is a place of great historical importance. It was here that Lord Mahavira breathed his last, so, it is a place of great religious importance for the Jains.

We were much impressed by the beautiful Jain temples and peaceful atmosphere all around. From Pawapuri, we went to Nalanda which is famous for the ruins of an ancient university. We saw only the ruins most of which speak of our rich past and high quest for knowledge. Its library was the richest one in the world and scholars from all parts of the world came here in search of knowledge. From Nalanda, we went to Rajgir. Here we saw the famous Akhara of Jarasandh. We took bath in the hot springs of Rajgir. We also saw the Shanti stoopa which is worth seeing.

All these places, in fact, are of great importance. We returned to Bihar sharif at about 7 P.M. 1 wish you were with us. I suggest you to visit these places. Convery my best regards to your parents and love to your youngers.

Sincerely yours,

Question 4.
Write a letter to your friend describing a pleasant dream.


I received your letter which brought a flood of joy and excitement for me. The description of Nature you have given is very fine. I am also going to describe a pleasant dream I had last night. With sunset I came back from the temple of Lord Siva.It was very cold. The atmosphere was. full of fog. I went to bed at 7.p.m. I do not remember

when I fell asleep. In the night I had a dream. I found myself in the chair of the Prime Minister. Many people were coming towards me. They were very eager to congratulate me on my grand victory. The Prime ministers of several countries also came to have a good relation with me. I gave my assurance to all those persons. ‘

At last I made a fine speech. I emphasized on the present education system of India. I promised to improve this education system. 1 also laid emphasis on Family Planning. In the mean time I got up and found myslef lying on the bed in my room. I realised that it was not true but a dream.
With best wishes,

Your loving friend,

Question 5.
Write a letter to the editor of a local daily newspaper requesting him to draw the attention of the Government to the Flood-affected or famine- stricken people of Bihar.


The Editor
The Times of India,
Patna .Sir,
Through your daily newspaper I would like to draw the attention of the  government to the plight of flood-affected famine stricken people of Bihar. This year heavy rainfall has caused havoc in Bihar. All rivers of the state have been overflooded. Flood water has submerged the fields.

Standing crops have been swept away. Many houses have collapsed. People have become homeless. Epidemics have broken out in the villages. People are losing their lives due to the fatal diseases. They are also suffering from hunger. Therefore, I request you to press the government to take steps for the relief to the flood affected/famine stricken people.

Yours faithfully,
Raj Kumar Verma.

Question 6.
Write a letter to your friend describing what you want to do after the examination.
Dear Sum an,
I had your letter yesterday. It pleased me very much. Through this letter I came to know about your programme after the examination. But you may laugh at what I want to do after my examination. But nothing can change the direction of my determination. You know that our country is faced with social, political and economic problems.

The main cause of these problems is the ignorance of the people. I shall do something so that the people may think intelligently. I shall arouse in them social and political consciousness. This is the part of my plan that 1 want to follow after the examination.

I am fine. You will also be all right there. Convey my best regards to your Daddy and Mummy and good wishes to your youngers.

Yours sincerely,

Question 7.
Write an application to the Principal requesting him to issue your character certificate or college leaving certificate.
The Principal.
Nalanda College,
Bihar Sharif
Most humbly and respectfully I beg to say that I have been a student of your college for two years. I have just passed my I. Sc. examination as a regular student from your college. I have secured 80 % marks. Now I am not in a position to continue my studies. My father is the only earning member of my family. But he has been ill for last six months. Therefore. 1 have to support my whole family. For this I am looking for a job. 1 have to apply for the post of a clerk in the Northern Railway. I have been one of the ten best students of your college. I have been the Captain of the college football team. Besides, I have always taken part in social and cultural activities of the college.
Therefore, I request you to issue me a Character certificate/College Leaving Certificate for submission of my application.
Thanking you,

Yours faithfully,
Vimal Kumar
Roll No.-151

Question 8.
Write a letter to your friend telling him what you want to do after finishing your studies.
Write a letter to your friend describing the aim or ambition of your life.


My dear Jai Prakash,
Many, many thanks to you for your letter dated 11.06.2020.1 am much pleased to know that you want to be a doctor. 1 am sure that you will get success, but I want to be a teacher.

Friend, as you know India is a country of villages. Most of the people live in the villages. They are illiterate. So the ambition of my life is to give people the light of knowledge. Doctors and engineers can serve the nation best only when people are educated. Unless people are led from darkness to light the country cannot develop. My ambition is to teach even those ignorant adults who inhabit in our country.

To fulfill my ambition, I shall go to those comers of the country where people live their lives like beasts. I shall teach them to live their lives in a proper manner. I am very fine. You too are OK. Kindly tell my best compliments to Mummy and Papa.

Yours affectionately,

Question 9.
Write an application to the Post Master requesting him to redirect your letters to new address.
The Post Master
Head Post office .
Bihar Sharif (Nalanda)
With due respect I have to say the following words for your kind consideration. My name is Mohan Kumar. My father is a clerk in the Collectorate office at Bihar Sharif. But he has been transferred to Gaya Collectorate. He has joined his duty. My family will also shift there within a few days. I beg you to redirect all my letters to the following address :
Kailash Prasad
G/o Sri Ramadhar Pd.
At.-Gewal Bigha
P.O.-A.O. Colony
Dist- Gaya
Therefore, you are requested to redirect my letters to the above mentioned address. For this act of kindness I shall be obliged to you.
Thanking you.

Yours faithfully,
Ram Kumar Bharaopur
Bihar Sharif (Nalanda)

Question 10.
Write a letter to your friend describing a marriage ceremony in your family.
Write a letter to your friend describing the happiest day of your life.


Dear Dharmendra,
You are quite aware of the fact that life is a drama. We find the episodes of sorrow and happiness in, it. My happiest day is the marriage ceremony day of my sister.

On the day of my sister’s marriage ceremony, I was very happy. My sister was in red Saree. She looked like goddess Laxmi. The bridegroom was also with all his friends. They were very glad. They were fully satisfied with the arrangements we had made. The marriage ritual was gone through.

There was exchange of garlands to the chanting of mantra. All the guests were served delicious dishes. There were dances and sweet songs. They were entertained by the orchestra party. All persons present at this function were happy. I was the happiest man. On that occasion, your absence caused me anxiety.
With best wishes,

Yours Sincerely,

Question 11.
Write a letter to your father telling him about your preparation for your coming examination.


My dear Father,
Here 1 am quite well. 1 hope you will also be very fine with the members of the family. I think you are anxious to know about my preparation for the coming annual examination. But you should not worry for it.

Father, you must know that I have an earnest desire to do well at the examination. My examination will start from the 31th of May 2020. I have revised all my books. I can solve even difficult problems. The only thing for which 1 am anxious is English. It beats me but it cannot reduce me to a state of pathetic lessness. I hope I must get over this problem; If I succeed in doing so 1 all pass in the first division. ‘
With best wishes,

Your loving son,

Question 12.
Write an application to the Vice-Chancellor requesting him to grant you Rs.500 for purchasing books and paying the examination fee.
The Vice-Chancellor,
Magadh University ‘
With due respect I have to say the following lines for your kind consideration. I am a student of Class – XII of Kisan College. I have always done well at the examination. But I belong to a very poor family. This poverty brings hinderance to my success. I am so poor that I can neither purchase books to prepare myself for the examination nor pay the examination fee.

Therefore, I kindly request you to be so kind as to grant me a sum of Rs. 500 so that I may buy books and pay the examination fee. For this, I shall ever be obliged to you. ‘
Thanking you,

Yours faithfully,

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Bihar Board 12th English Unseen Passages for Comprehension Important Questions

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Bihar Board Class 12th English Unseen Passages for Comprehension Important Questions

Read carefully the passage given below and answer the questions that follow—

Passage No. 1

We had read a lot about Victoria Falls and had long dreamt of taking a close look at this awe-inspiring and magnificent spectacle of nature. At last the dream came true. I was standing on a huge rock on the edge of the Rain Forest. A vast panorama of magnificent shapes and colours stretched in front of me.

Looking down I saw the grey mist rolling up from the abysmal death. Hundreds of dragonflies are diving in and out of the falling rain like flying emeralds. Right in front of me, on the other side of the abyss. I saw the Zambsi sliding over the milelong edge of the precipice. The sight was frightening, but it was also beautiful. One loves to see the mass of water tumbling down. But the spectator is blinded by the spray and deafened by the roar.

(a) Answer the following questions briefly:
(i) What are the two adjectives which best describe the Victoria Falls?
(ii) What is the forest near the Victoria Falls called?
(iii) How do the dragonflies look like?
(iv) Why does the author describe the falls frightening and beautiful?
(a) The two such adjectives are—awe-inspiring and magnificent.
(b) The forest near the Victoria Falls is called Rain Forest.
(c) The dragonflies look like flying emeralds.
(c) The falls look beautiful because of the tumbling mass of water; but they look frightening because of the mighty roar.

Passage No. 2

So great is our passion for doing things for ourselves, that we are becoming increasingly less dependent on specialized labour. No one can plead ignorance of a subject any longer, for there are countless do-it yourself publications. Armed with the right tools and materials, newly-weds gaily embark on the task of decorating their own homes.

Men of all ages spend hours of their leisure¬time mistalling their own fire-places, laying out their own gardens, building garages and making furniture. Some really keen enthusiasts go so far as to make their own record players and radio transmitters.

Shops cater for the do-it yourself craze not only by running special advisory services for movices, but by offering consumers bits and pieces which they can assemble at home. Such things provide an excellent outlet for pent up creature energy, but unfortunately not all of us are bom handymen.

Wives tend to believe that their husbands are infinitely resourceful and versatile. Even husbands who can handly drive a nail is straight are supposed to be bom electricians, carpenters, plumbers and machanics. When lights fuse, furniture gets rickety, pipes get clogged or vacuum cleaners fail to operate, wives automatically assume that their husbands will some how put things right.

The worst thing about the do-it yourself game is that sometimes husbands live under the delusion that they can do anything even when they have been repeatedly proved wrong. It is a question of pride as much as anything else.

Last spring my wife suggested that I call in a man to look at our lawn- mover. It has broken down the previous summer, and though 1 promised to repair it, I had never got round to it. 1 would hear of the suggestion and said that I would fix it myself. One Saturday afternoon I hauled the machine into the garden and had a close look at it. As far as 1 could see, if only needed a minor adjustment: a turn of a screw here, a little tightening up there, a drop of oil and if would be as good as new. Invitably the repair job was not quite so simple.

The mower firmly refused to now, so I decided to dismantle it. The garden was soon littered with chunks of metal which had once made up a lawn-mower. But 1 was extremely pleased with myself. I had traced the cause of the trouble. One of the links in the chain that drives the wheels had shapped.

After buying a new chain I was faced with the insurmountable task of putting the confusing jigsaw puzzle together again. I was not surprised to find that the machine still refused to work after I had reassembled it, for the simple reason that I was left with several curiously shaped bits of metal which did not seem to fit anywhere.

I gave up in despair. The weeks passed and the grass grew. When my wife nagged me to do something about it, 1 told her that either I would have to buy a new mower or let the grass grow. Needless t o say that our house is now surrounded by a jungle. Buried some where in deep grass there is a rusting lawn-mower which I have promised to repair one day.

(a) Answer the following questions briefly:
(i) Who do people not rely on specialized labour so much now a days, according to the writer ?
(ii) How do shops encourage people to do thing for themselves ?
(iii) What do wives tend to believe about their husbands ?
(iv) Why do husbands think that they can do anything even when proved otherwise ?
(v) ‘Do-it-yourself craze has its own advantage. What is that ?

(b) Select the appropriate expression from the giveii options to convey the writers message. Do-it-yourself activities are good to pursue because
(i) they always provide an excellent outlet for creative energy.
(ii) they help husbands feel important in the eyes of their wives.
(iii) they are making people less dependent on specialised labour.

(c) Find words in the passage which convey the simplar as the following :
(i) break
(ii) zealous
(iii) carried.
(i) They have developed a passion for doing things for themselves.
(ii) Shops cater to this passion by providing special advisory services for novices and also after consumers fits and pieces of machines for assemblage.
(iii) Wives think that their husbands are very resourceful and can put everything right.
(iv) Husbands are under illusion that they are very efficient; they also suffer from a sense of pride.
(v) ‘Do-it-yourself craze provides an excellent outlet for pent-up creative energy of a man.

They always provide an excellent outlet for creative energy.
(i) shap
(ii) enthusiast
(iii) hauled.

Passage No. 3

Punctuality is a necessary habit in all affairs of a civilized society. Without it.nothing could ever be brought to a conclusion; everything would be in a state of chaos. Only in a spersely populated rural community is it possible to disregard it. In ordinary living there can be some tolerance of unpunctuality. The intellectual, who**is working on some abstruse problem, has everything coordinated and organized for the matter in hand.

He is therefore forgiven, if late for the dinner party. But people are often reproached for unpunctuality when their only fault is cutting things fine. It is hard for energetic, quick-minded people to waste time, so they are often tempted to finish a job before setting out to keep an appointment. If no accidents occur on the way, like punctured tires, diversion of traffic, sudden descent of fog, they will be on time.

They are often more industrious citizens than those who are never late. The over-punctual can as much be a trial to others as the unpunctual. The guest who arrives half an hour too soon is the greatest nuisance. Some friends “of my family had this irritating habit. The only thing to do was to ask them to come half an hour later than the other guests. Then they arrived just when we wanted them.

If you are catching a train, it is always better to comfortably early than even a fraction of a minute too late. Although being early may mean wasting a little time, this will be less than if you miss the train and have to wait an hour or so for the next one.

And you avoid the frustration of arriving at the very moment when the train is drawing out of the station and being unable to get on it.” An even harder situation is to be on the platform in good time for a train and still to see it go off without you. Such an experience befell a certain young girl the first time she was travelling alone.

She entered the station twenty minutes before the train was due, since her parents had impressed upon her that it would be unforgivable to miss it and cause the friends with whom she was going to stay to make two journeys to meet her. She gave her luggage to a porter and showed him her ticket. To her horror he said that she was two hours too soon. She felt in her hand bag for the piece of paper on which her father had written down all the details of the journey and gave it to the porter.

He agreed that a train did come into the station at the time on the paper and that it did stop, but only to take on water, not passengers. The girl asked to see a time-table, feeling sure that her father could not have made such a mistake. The porter went to fetch one and arrived back with the station masters who produced it with a flourish and pointed out a microscopic ‘O’ beside the time of the arrival of the train at his station.

This little ‘O’ indicated that the train only stopped for water. Just at that moment the train came into the station. The girl, tears streaming down her face, begged to be allowed to ship into the guard’s van. But the station master was adamant: rules could not be broken. And she had to watch that train disappear towards her destination while she was left behind.

(a) Answer the following questions briefly:
(i) Why is punctuality necessary in a civilized society ?
(ii) What are the dangers of leaving the base minimum of time for appointment ?
(iii) The over-punctual can be as much a trial to others as the unpunctual. Why ?
(iv) Why did the author’s family ask some guests to come half an hour later than others ?
(v) Why, according to the author, is it better to wait on the platform before the train arrives ?

(b) Find words in the passage which convey similar meaning as the following:
(i) hard working
(ii) blamed
(iii) thinly

(c) Select three appropriate expressions from the above passage that may prove that the author greatly favours observance of punctuality in life:
(i) Punctuality is necessary for avoiding confusion and choas in the affairs of civilized society.
(ii) When we set out to keep an appointment we should leave early so that unexpected diversions and delays could not affect us.
(iii) Those who are over punctual can be a ruisance by arriving too early. They may disturb the arrangements that are being made.
(iv) The author’s family was forced to resort to this strategy in order to keep such guests who arrived too early away from interfering with the arrangements.
(v) It is better to wait a few minutes that to wait a whole hour or more for the next train.

(i) industrious
(ii) reproached
(iii) sparsely.

(i) Punctuality is a necessary habit in all affairs.
(ii) People are often reproached for unpunctuality.
(iii) Without it, nothing could be brought to conclusion, everything would be in a state of choars.

Passage No. 4

The New Year is a time for resolutions. Mentally, at least most of us could compile for midable lists of do’s’ and ‘don’ts’. The same old favorites recur ‘ year in and year out with monotous regularity. We resolve to get up earlier each morning, eat less, find more time to play with the children, do a thousand and one jobs about the house, be nice to people we don’t like, drive carefully, and take the dog for a walk everyday. Past experience has taught us that certain accomplishments are beyond attainment. If we remain deep-rooted lions, it is only because we have so often experienced the frustration that results from failure.

Most of us fail in our efforts at self-improvement because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to sany them out. We also make the fundamental error of announcing over resolutions to every body so that we look even more foolish when we slip back into our bad old ways. Aware of these pit falls, their year I attempted to keep my resolutions to myself.

I limited myself to two modest ambitions : to do physical exercise every morning and to read more in the evening. An all right party on New Year’s Eve provided me with a good excuse for not carrying out either of these new resolutions on

The daily exercise lasted only eleven minutes and I proposed to do them early in the morning before anyone had got up. The self-discipline required to drag myself out of bed eleven minutes earlier than usual was considerable. Nevertheless, I managed to creep down into the living-room for two days before anyone found me out.

After jumping about on the carpet and twisting the human frame into uncomfortable positions, I sat down at the breakfast table in an exhausted condition. It was this that betrayed me. The next morning the whole family trooped into watch the performance. That was really unsettling but I fended off the tanents and jibes of the family good humouredly and soon everybody got used to the idea.

However, my euthusiasm waned, the time I spent at exercises diminished. Little by little the eleven minutes fell to zero. By January 10th I was back to where I had started from. I argued that if I spent less time exhausting myself at exercises in the morning I would keep my mind fresh for reading when I got home from work.

Resisting the hypnotizing effect of television, I sat in my room for a few evenings with my eyes glued to a book. One night, however, feeling cold and lonely, I went downstairs and sat in front of the television pretending to read. That proved to be my undoing, for I soon got back to the old habit of dozing off in front of the screen. I still haven’t given up my resolution to do more reading. In fact, I have just bought a book entitled. ‘How to Read a ‘Thousand words a Minute’. Perhaps it will solve my problem, but 1 just haven’t had the time to read it.

(a) Answer the following questions briefly:
(i) What has past experience of New Year Resolutions taught us, according to the writer ?
(ii) According to the writer, why do most of us fail in our efforts for self-improvement ?
(iii) Why is it a basic mistake to announce our resolutions to every dody ?
(iv) Why did the writer not carry out his resolutions on New Year’s Day ?
(v) ‘The writer feels that the New Year Resolutions are not meant to be implemented’. Quote two expressions from the passage to prove it.

(b) Find words in the above passage which convey similar meaning as the following:
(i) over whelming
(ii) drawbacks
(iii) decrease

(c) Select the appropriate sentence-ending from the following given options:
The writer failed to implement his New Year Resolutions because-
(i) his family members disturbed him.
(ii) his resolutions were too ambitious.
(iii) he was looking for some convincing excuse to forget them.
(i) Past experience has taught us that we have been very ambitious in setting our targets. The failures therefore make us frustrated.
(ii) The writer feels that most of us fail in our efforts at self-improvement because we do not sincerely follow our goals.
(iii) It is a basic error to announce our resolutions to everybody as it invites unnecessary observation and scruting of our programme. When we ship back to old habits people taunt us.
(iv) As the writer attended an all night party on the new year’s we it , provided him a valid excuse for not carrying out his resolutions on the New Year’s Day.,

(v) (a) ‘Certain accomplishments are beyond attainment’.
(b) ‘Our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to carry them out’.

(b) (i) formidable
(ii) pitfalls

(c) (iii) he was looking for some convincing excuse to forget them.

Passage No. 5

The Scandinavian countries are much admired all over the world for their enlightened social policies. Sweden has evolved an excellent system for protecting the individual citizen from high handed or incompetent public officers. The system has worked so well that it has been adopted in other countries like Denmark, Norway, Finland and New Zealand. Even countries with large populations are now seriously considering imitating the Swedes.

The Swedes were the first to recognize that public officials like civil servants, police officers, health inspectors or tax collectors can make mistakes or act over-zealously in the belief that they are serving the public. As long ago as 1809, the Swedish Parliament introduced a scheme to safeguard the interest of the individual.

A parliamentary committee representing all political parties appoints a person who is suitably qualified to investigate privale grievances against the state. The official title of the person is ‘Justice ambudsman’, but Swedes commonly refer to him as the ‘ J.O.’ or ‘Ombudsman’.

The Ombudsman is not subject to political pressure. He investigates complaints large and small that come to him from all levels of society. As complaints must be made in writing, the Ombudsman receives an average of 1200 letters a year. He has eight lawyer assistants to help him, and he examines every single letter in detail.

There .is nothing secresive about the Ombudsman’s work, for his correspondence is open to public inspections. If a citizen’s complaint is justified, the Ombudsman will act on his behalf. The action he takes varies according to the nature of the complaint. He may gently reprimand an official or eves suggest to parliament that a law be altered. The following case is a typical example of the Ombudsman’s work.

A foreigner living in a Swedish village wrote to the Ombudsman complaining that he had been ill treated by the police, simply because he was a foreigner. The Ombudsman immediately wrote to the chief of police in the district asking him to send a record of the case.

There was nothing in the record to show that the foreigner’s complaint was justified and the chief of police stoutly denied the accusation. It was impossible for the Ombudsman to take action on the complaint, but when he received a similar complaint from another foreigner in the same village, he immediately sent one of his lawyers to ftivestigate. The lawyer ascertained that a policeman had indeed dealt roughly with foreigners on several occasions.

The fact that the policeman was prejidiced against foreigners could not be recorded in the offical files. It was only possible for the Ombudsman to find this out by sending one of his representatives to check the facts on the spot. The policeman is question was severely reprimanded and was informed that if any further complaints were received against him, he would be prosecuted. The Ombudsman’s prompt action in the matter at once put an end to an unpleasant practice which might have gone unnoticed.

(a) Answer the following questions briefly:
Why did Sweden introduce the institution of Ombudsman ?
How is an Ombudsman chosen in Sweden ?
How does the Ombudsman deal with the complaints ?
How can the public find out about die Ombudsman’s work ?
What action does the Ombudsman take, if a complaint is justified ? How old is the Swedish institution of Ombudsman ?

(b) Select the appropriate sentence-ending from the following given options:
The Ombudsman is not subject to political pressure because : he is empowered to take action aganist any public official, he derives his strength from his appointment by the parliament, he is assisted in his work by a good number of qualified lawyers.

(c) Find words in the above passage which convey similar meaning as the following:
(i) aggressive
(ii) project
(iii) biased.
(i) Sweden introduced the institution of Ombudsman to project the individuals against high-handed public officials.

(ii) The Ombudsman is chosen by a parliamentary committee, composed of the representatives of all the political parties.

(iii) The Ombudsman receives a written complaint from the people who are victims of high-handed .officials. If the complaint is justified, the Ombudsman takes suitable action against the offending official. He is assisted in his wqrk by a panel of eight qualified lawyers.

(iv) The Ombudsman’s work is transparent; his correspondence is open to public inspection.

(v) The action against the guilty official varies according to the nature of the complaint. The Ombudsman can reprimand the official and he can even recommend amendment of the law.

(vi) The institution of Ombudsman is 196 years, old; it came into ‘ existence in 180?

(b) he derives his strength from his appointment by the parliament.

(i) high handed
(ii) safeguard
(iii) prejudiced.

Passage No. 6

When a brave mountaineer is assailing the Everest he is as great a hero as a cosmonaut rocketing towards Mars in his space capsule, and thousands of men and women in different countries back his progress with their good, wisher and share the thrills and anxieties of his hazardous journey to the roof of the world, while scores of anxious scientists wish him success in the hope of obtaining valuable information on atmospheric conditions in the upper regions of the earth.

Mountaineering is indeed a source of pleasure and a mine of useful knowledge which is constantly enriching the scientific vocabulary of geologists, mineralogists and glaciologists of the world.

Mountaineering is a perennial source of joy to those who have eyes that can appreciate beauties of nature. Nowhere does nature reveal her charm is greater abundance than as green and flowering mountaintops with transparent streams of water flowing down their slopes or on snow-clad hills where sunlight weaves its magic colours into their virginal whiteness.

To lovers of mountains, the sound of water falls is like the joyful clapping of merry, primitive dancers, and the howling of night winds contains a musical pleasantness which surpasses the highly Sustained rhapsodies of man-made organs. Lakes in high altitudes, holding within their cup-like mountainous enclosures the watery wealth of surrounding glaciers, treeless plateaus covered with rare varieties of grass, plants and flowers and yawning charms into whose dark, unfathomable interior, natures countless species of animals and plants carry on their fight for existence, are attractions so powerful and irresistible that no man or woman who is a member of a mountaineering party or club can turn a deaf ear to their call.

These widely scattered, ever-alluring treasures of nature are the climber’s greatest inducement to wander with a hungry heart in search of beauty, adventure and fame along the dangerous slopes of sky-embracing heights.

Mountaineering is an awfully risky venture in the case of those ambitious souls who are dreaming of conquering such majestic peaks as Annapurna, Dhaulagiri and Everest, and who wish to be.ranked among the world’s greatest climbers, Sir Edmund P. Hillary and tenzing Norgay.

Dozens of advanturers belonging to different nations with Their Hearts burning with a passion to conquer the highest peak in the world perished in the immortal shows of the Himalayas, after painfully inching their way to heights which were inclose proximity to the summit.

Expedition after expedition turned back exhausted, frost-bitten, and utterly disappointed Men the mighty Himalayas hurled icy winds, snow storms and blizzards at those who wanted to conquer Everest, thus banning their way to this pinnacle of glory. The bones of many men of unrealised ambition lie buried in the glacial wilderness which is the home of the highest peak is the world.

Such awful setbacks, however, did not dampen the enthusiasm of succeeding generations of mountaineers; the failures of early expeditions did not defer Colonel Hunt and his brave companions from trying to plant on the summit the flag of the victory of human defiance of nature’s death dealing agents in high altitudes.

(a) Answer the following questions briefly:
(i) Mountaineers are considered as heroes, why ?
(ii) In what way does mountaineering become a source of knowledge ?
(iii) What are the beautiful sights which catch a mountaineer’s eye ?
(iv) Why is mountaineering considered risky ?
(v) Setbacks in mountaineering do not dampen the spirit of many mountaineers. Why ?

(b) Find words in the above passage which convey similar meaning as the following:
(i) One who studies the science relating to the history and development of the earths’s crust
(ii) Lasting through the year
(iii) A blinding storm of wind and snow.

Mountaineers are considered as real heroes because their hazardous journey to the roof of the world provides thrills and anxieties to thousands of men and women throughout the world. Mountaineering is a great source of knowledge as it provides valuable information on atmospheric conditions of the upper regions, minerals and glaciers.

The mountaineer’s eye catches many beautiful sounds, colours and sights of nature. Claciers, snow-clad hills, new flowers and birds provide rare experiences of beauty at the great heights. Mountaineering is risky as people have to face icy winds, snow storms and blizzards.

Setbacks never dampen the spirit of mountaineers who are determined to hoist the flag of human victory on summits,
(i) geotogist
(ii) perennial
(iii) blizzard.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Bihar Board 12th English Precis Writing Important Questions

Bihar Board Class 12th English Precis Writing Important Questions

Precis writing is a very fine, significant and useful piece of composition to only from the point of the University examination or other examinations in e familiar sense, it is so even in the practical busy work-day life as a time¬saving device and ah impressive at work.

The precis writer has to attempt precis-writing and continue its practice with the following points in mind—

(i) Precis should be given approximately in one-third of the given passage of fixed number of words as per the question. However, this is not a concern of primary importance.

(ii) The point of greatest importance is how to shorten the given passage in compact language. We have to scissor off the superficial words or phrases, delete the examples and quotations and avoid the repetitions or elaboration of the facts or the subject matter.

(iii) The central subject should be reproduced systematically and logically. Besides, the answer has to be furnished only in one paragraph.

(iv) Precis has to be made invariably and as far as practicable in third person.

(v) The passage given should not be reproduced. Like every answer, may be even more than that, this answer has to be given in one’s own words.

(vi) The title of precis should bear on leading idea contained in the passage. Moreover, it should be short and suitable representation of the said idea.

(vii) Precis should be simple and straight.

(viii) Generally some reflective passages are given for precis-writing. Sometimes some descriptive or narrative passage is also set. However, every passage, whichever it may be, is descriptive of some important topic.

Example – 1

Some people consider that man is becoming the slave of the machine. Certainly machines are playing an ever increasing part in our lives. Let us hope that they will never become more important than the man they were invented to serve. Charlie Chaplin in his film, ‘Modem Time’ drew attention to this danger.

In the film he got a job in a factory that employed mass-production methods. He had to stand by a machine with a spanner in his hand. An endless belt passed in front of him carrying slowly an endless line of articles. As each one passed, he tightened one nut on one bolt with his spanner.

His work was done with one turn of the wrist repeated throughout the day. Very soon his mind became affected and the film shows the amusing things which he did as result of his mental disorder. Although it was very funny, the film had a serious side.

It showed that the kind of work which many people do, for from giving them pride and pleasure, is more likely to fit them for the lunatic asylum.We must all hope that means will be found to retain the advantages arising out of mass production, while at the same time giving the worker some of the pride and pleasure of the old craftsmen.

Title: Machines and Their Effect

Precis—Machines are playing constantly an increasing part in our life. Allegedly the man is being enslaved by the machine. The mechanical work affects the mind adversely. However, it should be hoped that advantages of large scale production will be kept. Besides, the worker will also get some pride and pleasure out of his work.


Human life consists of a succession of small events, each of which is comparatively unimportant, and yet the happiness and success of every man depend upon the manner in which these small events are dealt with. Character is built upon little things—little things well and honourably transacted.

The success of a man in business depends upon his attention to little things. The comfort of a household is the result of small things arranged and duly provided for. Good government can only be accomplished in the same way— by well regulated provision for doing little things.

Accumulation of knowledge and experience of most valuable kind is the result of little bits of knowledge and experience carefully treasured up. Those who learn nothing in life are set down as failures—because they have neglected little things. They may have themselves considered that the world has gone against them, but in fact they have been their own enemies.

There has long been a popular belief in good luck, but like many other popular notions it is gradually giving way. The conviction is extending that diligence is the mother of good luck, in other words, a man’s success in life will be proportionate to his industry, to his attention to small things.

Negligent shiftless loose fellows never meet with luck because the result of industry is denied to those who will not use.the proper efforts to secure them. It is not luck but labour that makes men. Luck, says an American writer, is ever waiting for something to turn up. Labour with keen eye and strong will, turns up something.

Title: The Secret Of Success

Precis—Life is made of the stuff to small events. Much of our success and happiness depends on the manner we deal with small events. Those who neglect little things in their lives are bound to fail in life. Only labour counts and character is destiny. The man is the architect of his own fate. His success is in proportion to his industry. His failure is also due to him.

Example – 3

In every country people imagine that they are the best and the cleverest and the others are not as good as they are. The Englishman thinks that he and his country are the best; the Frenchman is very proud of France and everything French; the Germans and Italians think no end of their countries and many

Indians imagine that India is in many ways the greatest country in the world. This is all conceit. Everybody wants to think well of himself and his country. But really there is no person who has not got some good in him and some bad. And in the same way there is no country which is not partly good and partly bad.

We must take the good wherever we find it and try to remove the bad wherever it may be. We are, of course, most concerned with our own country, India. Unhappily, it is in a bad way today and most of our people are very poor and miserable. They have no pleasure in their lives.

We have to find out how we can make them happier. We have to see what is good in our ways and customs and try to keep it, and whatever is bad we have to throw away. If we find anything good in other countries we should certainly take it.

Title: Conceit

Precis—Citizens of different countries suffer from conceit. They suffer from superiority complex. They overrate themselves and their countries, but underrate others. Really, however, no country is fully good or bad. Besides, we should be receptive to the good and indifferent to the bad. We should surely take even the good found in others.

Example – 4

Occasions cannot make spurs for young men. If you expect to wear spurs you must win them. If you wish to use them you must buckle them to your heels before you go into the fight. Any success you may achieve is hot worth having unless you fight for it. Whatever you win in life you must conquer by your own efforts, and then it is yours—a part of yourself. Let not poverty stand as an obstacle in your way.

Poverty is uncomfortable, as I can testify, but nine times out of ten the best thing that can happen to a young man is to be tossed over board, and compelled to sink or swim for himself. In all my acquaintances I have never known one to be drowned who was worth saving . To a young man who has in himself the magnificent possibilities of life it is not fitting that he should be permanently commanded.

You must not continue to be employed, you must be employer. You must be promoted from the ranks to a command, go and find it, and command it. You can at least command a horse and there can be generalization of them, and may carve out a fortune with them.

Title: Success Honour

Precis—Opportunities themselves cannot honour the young men. For honour they have to make efforts and fight. Even success without fight is not deserved and attainable. Really, poverty cannot stand in the way of success. The established fact is that most of the people are themselves responsible for their rise or fall. Moreover, the young persons should never be parasites or dependent. They can even grow rich only when they command and function as employers.

Example – 5

Education is not an end but a means to an end. We do not educate children only for the purpose of educating them; the purpose is to prepare them for life. As soon as we realise this we will understand that it is very important to choose a system of education which will really prepare children for life.

In many modem countries it has for some time been fashionable to think that by free education for all—whether rich or poor, clever or stupid—one can solve all the problems of society and build a perfect nation. But we can already see that free education for all it not enough.

We find in such countries a larger number of people with university degrees than there are jobs for them to fill. Because of their degrees, they refuse to do what they think ‘low’ work. In fact, work with the hands is thought to be dirty and shameful in such countries.

When we say that all of us must be educated, what we mean is that all of us must be educated in such a way, that each of us can do whatever job is suited to his brain and ability. And, secondly that we can realize that all jobs are necessary to society and that it is very bad to be ashamed of one’s work or to scorn someone else’s. Only such a type of education can be called valuable to society.

Title: Education

Precis—Education is a means and its object is to prepare the students for living life. It is wrong to think that free education can solve all the chronic problems of our society. It has rather created more unemployment as the students getting this education dislike manual work which they take for a low work. This is a very wrong attitude. We should rather be ready to do any work suited to our brain and ability.

Example – 6

What is really needed in the world, perhaps more than ever before, is not some new world shattering discovery in nuclear physics, or some breath¬taking discovery in chemistry or medicine. The advance for which the world is waiting beyond any doubt, is a small advance—a slight advance in charity, in understanding, forbearance, tolerance, justice and mercy. That is what the world is waiting for and waiting rather anxiously.

But charity and tolerance and forbearance and understanding of one another are non-material matters. And in non-material things—in the simplest social things—science has been helpless. It cannot help us to distinguish good from evil.

May be, this will not always be so. Who knows ? It is quite possible that some day science will effect an improvement in human brain itself. Not a structural improvement, for in structure the human brain is the greatest miracle of all. Its understanding will come last.

But there might well be a functional improvement. This is far from fantastic. Already instances areknown, like amphcetamaine, which appear temporarily to increase the power of reasoning, other chemicals are known which give intellectual stimulation.

I should say there is hope that man will one day improve on natural man, raise his intellectual status and give him greater power of reasoning and understanding to abolish war. Whether that will be so, whether he will have a better understanding of his fellowmen remains to be seen.

There are troubulous times ahead. But those who fear the ftiture are the craven in spirit; for life is becoming more interesting and exciting.

Title: Ideal Human Qualities

Precis—The need of the hour is not any startling scientific discovery but ideal human qualities which the world is eagerly waiting for. These qualities are not material and so science has no grip over them. In the distant future, science may have functional development in human life.

The man may improve on the natural man, raise his intellectual level. But he may not have the better understanding of his fellowmen. However, as the future is troublesome and life exciting, man has to be fearless.

Example – 7

It is no doubt true that we cannot go through life without sorrow. There can be no sunshine without a shade. We must not complain that roses have thoms, but rather be grateful that thorns bear flowers. Our existence here is so complex that we must expect much sorrow and suffering.

Many people worry and torment themselves about the mystery of existence. But although a good man may, at times, be angry with the world it is certain that no man who was ever discontented with the world did his duty in it. The world is like a looking glass; if you smile, it smiles.

If you frown, it frowns back. If you look at it through a red glass all seems red and rosy: if through a blue, all blue; if through a smoked one, all dull and dingy. Always try, then, to look at the bright side of things; almost everything in the world has a bright side.

There are some persons, whose smile, the sound of whose voice, whose very presence is like a ray of sunshine, and brightens the whole room. Greet everybody with a bright smile, kind words and pleasant welcome. It is not enough to love those who are near and dear to us. We must be so that we do so.

While, however, you should be grateful and enjoy to the full the innumerable blessings of life. We cannot expect to have no sorrows or anxieties. Life has been described as a comedy to those who think and a tragedy to those who feel. It is indeed tragedy at times and a comedy very often, but as a rule it is what we choose to make it.

Title: Bright Side Of Life

Precis—We cannot escape from sufferings and sorrows in life. Our existence is really complex. There are both comedy and tragedy in life. But the world looks as the man looks at it. It is good and comfortable to those who look at its bright side while to pessimists it is sad and sullen. The judicious approach of life is only to welcome it as it is without questioning it. We have only to enjoy the essential real life.

Example – 8

In a civilised life there is a rule against violence. Against taking the law into our own hands : it is a rule which most of us observe—so many, indeed, that a great number of people go through life accepting orderlines and non¬violence as part of the scheme of Nature. But when some individual comes into their midst who refuses to observe the current rules and follows the simple rule fhat might is right, the law abiding citizens of society do not know what do to and look on in helpless bewildered confusion.

The last two wars did something to alter men’s attitude towards the ruF of life, but much less than might have been expected. Men went into the fighting line, not, because as our generals love to say, “Man is a fighting animal”, but because there were law abiding citizens obediently doing what the state told them to do.

It was the duty of the soldier to commit violence and murder upon his country’s enemies but he did these things under the order and the doing of them hardly impaired his normal law-abidingness. Considering the fact that for many years half the grown up men in Europe were engaged in trying to murder one another one can only be astonished that the postwar increase in crimes of violence has not been vastly greater. That is proof of how deeply the habit of playing according to the rules has become ingrained in us.

Title: Right is Might

Precis—Sometimes ‘might is right’ theory prevails. For a long time the adults in Europe remained, engaged in violence. The two World Wars negatived the conception of law abidingness of people. But really the rule of law prevails in a civilized society. Even in the period following two World Wars the people resumed the course of order and safety.

Example – 9

What is a democratic government to do in a country where people are steeped in ignorance and superstition, where there is opposition or resistance to even mild reforms from vested interests in society ? It can be said that if the government is to go by consent or consensus it will not be able to do anything.

Could the government ever get the consent or consensus of people for abolition of untouchability ? But has untouchability been really abolished ? Frankly speaking, even now the code of Manu is in operation, the large part of code, prepared by Dr. Ambedkar is not in actual operation.

No law, perhaps, can come into full operation unless it is acceptable to the people. And it is not nesessary to say that acceptability cannot come without conviction. The government has been taking measure after measure to change the socio-economic structure or to remove disparities, social and economic. Not that all the measures have gone in vain. Feudalism has been abolished.

gates of universities, legislatures, government services etc. have been thrown open to all castes and communities, exploitation of the weaker sections of the people has been considerably reduced. But there has been no change in the outlook of the people.

Politicians and administrators still behave like fedual lords; corruption, favouritism and nepotism have not shown any sign of abatement, faith in caste system and all that it may stand for has not weakened. In one word, independence, democracy etc. have not shattered the age-old beliefs and convictions. No wonder the blind are leading the blind.

Title: Failure Of Modern Democracy

Precis—Acceptability of law is subject to conviction and conviction is ‘ not possible as long as there are ignorance and superstition. In the modem I democracy, there is no conviction at all as the conditions for the same are not met. Our society is still conservative.

The government has made some pieces of legislation for the betterment of society, but society does not change for the better. Still vested interests who are blind are leading the other 1 unenlightened people under democracy. Besides it can be said that nothing positive is possible if we want to do it with the consent or consensus of the present people.

Example – 10

‘ We have been asked whether we are happy to be living now or whether we , wish we had lived in the past, a few centuries ago. I am clear in my view and I must say emphatically that I am glad, very glad to be living in the modem age.
There were pleasures in the past and there were adventures and many other charms by which I am impressed, but there was also a great deal of „ ignorance and dullness and many other disadvantages on account of which I think life is happier today than it was in the past.

I am interested in education. Today all children receive free education from the age of five or six until they are fifteen or sixteen. If they are clever, they continue to receive education even while they are at the University. How many children in the past learnt even to read and write ? Very few, indeed. This is a great advantage of the modem age. .

I love travelling, for I find it a source of pleasure as well as education. It brings new contact and experience which add to richness of life. Travelling is much easier today than it was in the past and now we can even think of flying to the moon. This was never possible in the past.

Then there are pleasures of music. Today thanks to the radio and the television all of us can enjoy the best music in our homes. This pleasure was not available in the past.

Title: Past Vrs. Present

Precis— One is very glad to be living at present. No doubt there were pleasant things in the past—advantages and charms. One is impressed with them. But in the past there were ignorance, dullness and many other disadvantages too. On the other hand, today we have educational facilities.

We have universal and even free education today upto the age of sixteen right from the age of five. One can cleverly enjoy free education even at the university level. Besides, travelling facilities and the pleasures of music from radio and television sets are also available to us. Thus life is happier today and our modem age is better than the ancient times.

Example – 11

When we survey our lives and endeavours, we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions and desires is bound up with the existence of other human things. We notice that our whole nature resembles to that of the social animal. We eat food that others have produced, we wear clothes that others have made, we live in houses that others have built.

The greater part of knowledge and belief has been communicated to us by other people through the medium of language which others have created. Without language our mental capacities would be poor indeed, comparable to those of higher animals; we have therefore, to admit that we owe our principal advantage over the beasts to the fact of living in human society. The individual if left alone from birth, would remain, primitive and beastlike in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly conceive.

The individual is what he is and it is his living in community which directs material and spiritual existence from the cradle to the grave. A man’s value to his community depends primarily on how far his feelings, thoughts and actions are directed towards promoting the good of his fellow beings. We call him good or bad according to his attitude in this respect.

Title: Man’s Social Instinct

Precis—Our life and actions are vitally linked with those of our fellow creatures. Our food, clothes and houses are all prepared by others. We owe language and beliefs to other people. They have been imparted to us through language. Our intellectual facilities would not have grown in the absence of language. We are superior to other animals in so far as we live in human society. Aman deprived of human society would behave like primitive animals. A man’s value is judged in relation to the great human community. The greater his usefulness for his fellows, the better he is.

Example – 12

Nations, like individual, derive support and strength from the feeling that they belong to an illustrious race, that they are the heirs of their greatness and ought to be promoters of their glory. It is of momentous importance that a
nation should have a great past to look back upon.

It inspires the life of the present, elevates and upholds it and enlightens and lifts it up, by the memory of the great deeds, the noble sufferings and the marvellous achievements of the old. The life of nations, as of men, is a great treasure of experience, which wisely used, leads to social progress and improvement; or misused, to dreams, delusion and failures. Like men nations are purified and strengthened by trials.

Some of the most glorious chapters in their history are those containing the record of suffering by means of which their character has been developed. Love of liberty and patriotic feeling may have done much, but trial and suffering nobly borne have done more than all.

Title: The National Life

Precis—Nations get support and power from their sense of belongingness to a celebrated race. They should be endowed with a rich past having the glorious history of trials, sufferings and sacrifices of the men of old. They are strengthened when they pass the ordeal or trials. Living for liberty, the feeling of patriotism and the bravely borne trials and sufferings have contributed to the life of nations and history bears a testimony to this.

Example – 13

The test of a great book is whether we want to read it only once or more than that. Any really great book we want to read the second time even more we wanted to read it the first time; and every additional time that we read it we find new beauties in it.

A book that a person of education and good taste does not care to read more than once is very probably not worth much. But we cannot consider the judgement of a single individual infallible. The opinion that makes a book great must be the opinion of many. For the greatest critics are apt to have dullness, certain in appretiations. Carlyle for example, could not endure Browning, Byron could not endure some of the greatest English poets.

A man must be many sided to utter a trustworthy estimate of many books. We may doubt the judgement of the single critic at times. But there is no doubt possible in regard to judgement of generations. Even if we cannot at once perceive anything good in a book which has been admired and praised for hundreds of years we may be sure that by trying, by studying it carefully, we shall at least be able to feel the reason of that admiration and praise. The best of all libraries for a poor man would be a library composed of such great works only, books which have passed the test of time.

Title: The Test of A Book

Precis— A great book always gives a new meaning and fresh beauties in every reading. This is the test of a great book and not that the quality of a book be judged by any particular scholar or critic. The opinion of many on the merit of a book is honourable. Besides, the judgement should be time honoured. Great books must stand the test of times.

Example – 14

Newspapers form an important link with the outside world. They provide a common man information about important events like earthquakes, cyclone, air crash, floods, result of an election, hijacking of an aeroplane, outbreak of an epidemic, visit of a foreign dignitary. Not only that, the newspapers also tell us about the weather, the sunrise and sunset time, temperature on each day.

They give information about the various entertainment programmes like films, dramas and music concerts and dance performances. In today’s engagement columns, they tell us about the seminars and symposia being held in different parts of the city. Besides, the traders and manufacturers advertise their products through newspapers. There are several other kinds of advertisements which are of use to the readers.

For example, the Situations vacant columns help the job seekers The matrimonial columns help the anxious parents to find suitable matches for their sons and daughters. Sale and purchase of property, both movable and immovable, is conducted through the newspaper columns. Thus the through the newspaper columns. Thus the newspapers occupy an important position in the lives of people. That is why we begin to feel uneasy if we do not get our newspaper on time and everyday.

Title: Importance of Newspapers

Precis— The area of coverage of newspapers had widened to such an extent that they have become important for all classes of men and women, especially for professionals. From natural disasters to political happenings, from cultural events to artistic activities, from advertisements of goods and services to information on jobs — all this information is available in newspapers They have become vital for jobseekers, manufacturers and consumers. And they help us plan our day with inputs on weather, temperature and cultural engagements in our city.

Example – 15

The university everywhere in the world is an important institution for the advancement of the people. The traditional view of a university which was regarded as a place where students would carry on their scholarly activities and build themselves as intellectuals, as isolated from rest of the society, has to be changed to a place where it becomes an institution fully conscious of the changes taking place in society and making due contribution to this change.

Universities in India have been functioning under several pressures The fast development that is taking place in society thus makes university lift- complex. The student now finds himself a victim of sudden breaking of social ties — family, village and culture. He finds that his studies have no roots is his own culture and his university education based on foreign standards is cracking.

The solution lies in better understanding of the puspose of university education among the teachers and students and in the creation of a sense of community. The students and teachers are supposed to be mindful of the real purpose of education and reorient it to suit -the changed conditions. The university authorities should, on their part, be careful not to assume that new techniques of teaching are good simply because they are new.

Title: The True Aim of University Education

Precis— The nature and functioning of a university has changed substantially. It is no longer an institution where students devote themselves merely to acquistition of knowledge; it has become an institution that is ever in touch with changes taking place in society as a whole. As a result, it has become important that the university teachers integrate modem knowledge with the social changes. In India students face a lot of difficulties arising out of the disharmony that exists between rural roots and knowledge that has a foreign base. This must be tactfully resolved.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions