Bihar Board Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Reproductive Health

Bihar Board Class 12 Biology Solutions  Chapter 4 Reproductive Health Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes.

BSEB Bihar Board Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Reproductive Health

Bihar Board Class 12 Biology Reproductive Health Text Book Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?
Answer:
A reproductive healthy society should have people who possess physically and functionally normal reproductive organs and normal emotional and behavioural interactions between them in all sex-related aspects. It is highly significant for any society and nation to achieve the target a healthy society in ail measures. Government of India has initiated various plans to attain total reproductive health.

Various family planning programmes and Reproductive and Child Health Care (RCH) programmes are being implemented for this purpose. They have provided strong infrastructural facilities, professional expertise and material support. With the help of non-governmental organisations, they provide guidance! and medical assistance to people for reproduction-related problems.

Question 2.
Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.
Answer:
Reproductive health is a collective terms which deals with the welfare of society in all the aspects of reproduction. It includes proper information about reproductive organs, adolscence and related changes, safe and hygienic sexual practice, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), AIDS etc. Fertile couples should be educated about different birth control options, care for pregnant women, post natal care for the child and mother as well.

Question 3.
Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?
Answer:
The young individual make a great portion of population of India. They belong to different age groups such as puberty, adolescent and early adulthood. It is very important to ensure health and education of these individual. Parents, other close relatives, teachers, friends and schools have a major role in dissemination the right information.

It is necessary to introduce sex-education in schools and provide the young minds with healthy and right information to save them from myths and misconceptions about sex- related aspects. Schools are a part of social circle for the individuals. With the assistance of proper instructor and physicians they should be provided information about reproductive organs, adolescence and related changes, STDs and safe, hygienic sexual practices.

Bihar Board Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Reproductive Health

Question 4.
Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.
Answer:
India has seriously taken up the cause to attain a reproductive healthy society. In 1951 the government has initiated the family planning programmes. Reproductive and Child Health Care (RCH) programmes are creating awareness among people about various reproduction related areas. Government along with NGOs with the help of audio-visual aids and print media is creating awareness atyiong people about the importance of reproductive health.

Government has provided strong infrastructural facilities, professional expertise and material support to successfully implement these programmes. Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI) Lucknow and others are doing advanced research in improving various reproduction related facilities. Massive child immunisation programmes are a huge success in this area. Amniocentesis is banned to legally stop increasing female foeticides. Over last 50 years the reproductive health of the society is significantly improved still a lot of scope for improvement is there.

Question 5.
What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?
Answer:
Rapidly increasing human population, particularly in the developing countries is major matter of concern. Improvement in the quality of life, increased health facilities and better living conditions are contributing factors towards population explosion. A rapid decline in death rate, maternal mortality rate (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) and increase in number of people in reproducible age are main cause for faster growth of population. Illiteracy in many countries, especially for girls is also a main reason.

Question 6.
Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.
Answer:
Uncontrolled growth of population, especially in developing countries has posed a serious threat to the world. Such an alarming rate of growth would lead to the scarcity of basic emenities like food, shelter and clothing. The governments are forced to take up serious measures and educate people about its conseqences. The best way of tackling the problem is to encourage the use of contraceptive methods by the fertile couples and to motive them for smaller families. A variety of methods for contraception are available today.

Their use is very easy, safe, readily available and cost-effective with little or no side effects. These can be categorized into traditional barriers, lUDs, Oral contraceptives, injectables, Implants and surgical method. One can choose according to utility and requirement.

Question 7.
Removal of gonads cannot be considered as contraceptive option. Why?
Answer:
Gonads are reproducing organs. They produce gametes which will fuse to form a zygote and embryo. In males, these are testes which produces sperms and in females its ovary which produces egg. It is not a recommended idea to remove a healthy organ from the body of an individual especially as a mean of contraception. This will lead to physiological as well as psychological complications. Other means of contraception are easily available, with no side effects, cost-effective and user friendly and reversible which do not interfere with the healthy functioning of the body.

Question 8.
Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.
Answer:
Amniocentesis is the transabdominal aspiration of fluid from the amniotic sac of the foetus. This is a prenatal diagnostic technique to determine any genetic disorders inthe foetus.

A small amount of amniotic fluid is drawn from amniotic sac. It contains cells which are sloughed from the foetal skin or respiratory tract. These can be examined for chromosomal abnormalities. Down’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome. Turner’s syndrome can be detected through amniocentesis.

Although amniocentesis is a useful techniue in determining chromosomal abnormalities and metabolic disorders such as sickle¬cell anaemia and phenylketonurea, this technique is misused to kill the normal female foetuses as it can detect the sex of the foetus also. That’s why amniocentesis is banned in our country.

Question 9.
Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.
Answer:
Sometimes in spite of having unprotected sexual courtship some couples are unable to produce children. This is called as infertility. Infertility may be due to physical, congenital, diseases, drugs, immunological or psychological reasons. Infertility clinics helps in diagnosing the condition and suggest the correct treatment also. Various ART (assisted reproductive technologies) are being practiced now-a-days. Most common is Invitro fertilization (IVF) followed by Embryo transfer (ET).

This is also known as test tube baby programme. This can be ZIFT-zygote intrafallopian transfer, if the embryo is upto 8 celled state or lUT-intrauterine transfer, if the embryo are more than 8 blastomeres. GIFT-gamete intrafallopian transfer is another technique where embryos from in-vivo fertilization are transferred to a recipient female.

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the procedure to form an embryo in the lab where sperm is directly injected into the ovum. Artificial insemination (AI) technique is used if the sperm count of the male partner is very low. In IUI-intra-uterine insemination, semen collected from the donor is introduced artificially into vagina or uterus of the female. All these advanced technique require specialised professional and very expensive instrumentation. These methods help a lot in reducing infertility.

Bihar Board Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Reproductive Health

Question 10.
What are the measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs?
Answer:
Diseases or infections transmitted through sexual intercourse are called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), e.g. Gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes and AIDS etc. Their early symptoms are minor which include itching, fluid discharge, slight pain, swellings etc. in the genital region. If not detected and treated timely these could lead to further complications such as pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID), abortions, stillbirths, ectopic pregnancy, infertility or even cancer of reproductive tract. Individuals in the age group of 15- 24 are most vulnerable to these infections.

These diseases can be prevented by :

  • Do not have sex with unknown partners or multiple partners.
  • Always use condoms during coitus.
  • Maintain sex hygiene.
  • Consult a physician immediately for any detection and cure.

Question 11.
State True/False with explanation.
(i) Abortions could happen spontaneously too. (True/False)
(ii) Infertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities/ defects in the female partner. (True/False)
(iii) Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception. (True/False)
(iv) Creating awareness about sex-related aspects is an effective method to improve reproductive health of the people. (True/False)
Answer:
(i) False, abortion is term given for medical termination of pregnancy.
(ii) False, female partner is not always responsible for infertility, it may be present in males also.
(iii) True, during complete lactation, there is no ovulation and hence no menstrual cycle so chances of fertilization are ruled out.
(iv) True.

Question 12.
Correct the following statements :
(a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
(b) All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.
(c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women.
(d) In E.T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.
Answer:
(a) Surgical methods of contraception are called as sterilization. These are permanent means of contraception. These methods do not prevent formation instead they prevent the transport of gametes.

(b) Most sexually transmitted diseases are curable iT detected timely. But, some like AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) is not curable.

(c) Contraceptives such as small doses of progestagen and estrogen combinations are taken orally in the form of pills. Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among females and not in the rural women only.

(d) ET is the embryo transfer technique. The embryo, if it is more than 8 blastomere stage, is directly transferred to the uterus (IUT) and can be to the fallopian tube if the embryo is less than 8 blastomere stage (ZIFT).

Bihar Board Class 12 Biology Reproductive Health Additional Important Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Who plays a greater role in procreation?
Answer:
Woman plays a greater role in procreation.

Question 2.
Who is responsible for the sex of the child?
Answer:
Father is responsible for the sex determination of the child.

Question 3.
What is reproductive health?
Answer:
Healthy reproductive organs with normal functions.

Question 4.
Define RCH programmes.
Answer:
These are Reproductive and Child Health Care programmes.

Bihar Board Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Reproductive Health

Question 5.
Does the production of test-tube babies improve the human race?
Answer:
It is also sexual reproduction and introduces genetic variation that may be advantageous and improve the race.

Question 6.
Name the sex chromosomes of male and female.
Answer:
Male : XY; Female : XX.

Question 7.
Name the contraceptive developed by CDRI.
Answer:
Saheli, it is a weekly pill.

Question 8.
Name the content of saheli.
Answer:
It is a non-steroidal preparation which is called as centchroman.

Question 9.
What is periodic abstinence?
Answer:
Natural method of contraception, in which couples avoid coitus from 10 to 17 days of the menstrual cycle.

Question 10.
Name any barrier methods of contraception.
Answer:
Condoms, Diaphragms, Cervical caps and Vaults.

Bihar Board Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Reproductive Health

Question 11.
What are IUDs?
Answer:
IUDs are Intra-Uterine Devices used as a method of contraception, e.g. Copper T.

Question 12.
Name two methods of sterilization.
Answer:
Vasectomy in males and tubectomy in females.

Question 13.
What do you mean by birth control?
Answer:
Birth control is the regulation of conception by preventive methods or devices to limit the number of off-springs.

Question 14.
What is the safe period for MTP?
Answer:
First trimester i.e. up to 12 weeks of pregnancy is considered as the safe period for MTP.

Question 15.
Name two STDs.
Answer:
Gonorrhoea and Syphilis.

Question 16.
Name any incurable STD.
Answer:
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Bihar Board Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Reproductive Health

Question 17.
What is a test tube baby?
Answer:
The baby produced by conceiving in cultural disc and nursing in the uterus.

Question 18.
Which age group is most vulnerable to contact STD?
Answer:
Individuals in the age group between 15-24 years.

Short Answer Type Questions

  • Question 1.
    List various birth control measures.
    Answer:
  • Use of contraceptives such as condom, diaphargm, cervical cap, IUDs and oral pills and vaginal tablets, jellies, pastes and creams.
  • Surgical operation, namely vasectomy and tubal ligation.
  • Abortion.

Question 2.
Write short note on RCH programmes.
Answer:
RCH are reproductive and child health care programmes.
These programmes of health centres provide :

  • necessary information, guidance and- help to the mothers before and after delivery so that they can properly look after themselves and the infants,
  • ensures safe delivery of infant and postnatal care,
  • provides for immunization of infants and prophylaxis against anaemia and vitamin deficiency,
  • arranges milk feeding programmes,
  • training midwives,
  • educating fertile couples about the benefits of small family.

Question 3.
How do oral pills help in birth control? Name some commonly used pills.
Answer:
Oral pills are a combination of progestins and estrogen. They inhibit ovulation and implantation. These alter the quality of cervical mucus to prevent or retard the entry of sperms. e.g. Combined pill. Mala D and Saheli.

Question 4.
Name two new techniques for determining the condition of the foetus.
Answer:

  1. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS): foetal cells are sucked into a catheter passed through the cervix without injuring the foetus. This provides a mass of rapidly dividing foetal cells for detection of any chromosomal disorders.
  2. Ultrasound imaging or sonography technique uses high-frequency sound waves ranging between 1 to 15 MHz frequency. This technique is totally harmless, non-invasive and it does not use any ionic radiations.

Question 5.
Why has amniocentesis been banned?
Answer:
Amniocentesis is a prenatal diagnostic technique to determine the genetic disorders in the foetus. Small amount of amniotic fluid is drawn with a syringe. Amniotic fluid contains some foetal cells which can be examined for chromosomal abnormalities. Amniocentesis is being misused to kill the normal female foetuses. That is why this malpractice is banned.

Bihar Board Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Reproductive Health

Question 6.
Who is a surrogate mother?
Answer:
Surrogate mother is a mother who substitutes the real mother to nurse the embryo because some women can produce ovum but cannot support a full-term pregnancy. Thus a embryo is implanted into the womb of another woman who carries the term of pregnancy and give birth to a healthy baby.

Question 7.
List some problems faced by adolescents.
Answer:

  1. Health matters
  2. Accidental injury
  3. Depression and suicide
  4. Substance abuse
  5. Eating disorders
  6. Unwanted pregnancy
  7. Violence
  8. Sexually transmitted diseases.

Question 8.
What are test-tube babies?
Answer:
A women who cannot conceive can have a baby by special technique. Ovum from mother is taken out, fertilized in- the lab, the embryo is reimplanted into the uterus. Embryo develops into a normal baby. The offspring thus produced is called a test tube baby. It is done by IVF in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer techniques.

Question 9.
What is done in amniocentesis? Mention the usefulness of this technique. (C.B.S.E. 1994)
Answer:
A women who cannot conceive can have a baby by special technique. Ovum from mother is taken out, fertilized in the lab, the embryo is reimplanted into the uterus. Embryo develops into a normal baby. The offspring thus produced is called a test tube baby. It is done by IVF in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer techniques.

Question 10.
What are permanent methods for contraception?
Answer:
Sterilization is a permanent and sure method for contraception. It is done by vasectomy in males and tubectomy in females. In the procedures a short, segment of vas defems or oviduct is removed and tying the remaining ends with surgical thread. These methods do not interfere the normal healthy life of the individuals. They block the transport of gametes to avoid fertilization.

Question 11.
Write a brief note on AIDS.
Answer:
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is transmitted by contact of infected cells-containing blood of a patient with the blood of a healthy person. It may spread by unprotected sex, using contaminated needles, majors, needle for boring pinnae, transfusion of blood, organ transplant, artificial insemination, parturition from mother to baby.

The HIV virus is a retrovirus and diploid, it binds specifically to a surface receptor on a helper T-cell and introduces its RNA and reverse transcriptase enzyme into the cells. Then it produces DNA copy of itself and DNA copy is integrated into host cell genome. Then the virus genome directs the production of new virus particles. Rapid formation and release of new virus particles destroy the host cells.

Full-blown AIDS occur when the number of helper T-cells falls too low to fight the disease. Detection of AIDS is done by ELISA tests. Great care and preventive measures should be taken to prevent fast spread of the diseases. People under the high-risk groups should be educated towards prevention and symptoms of the diseases. Upto date this disease is 100% fatal.

Bihar Board Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Reproductive Health

Question 12.
Differentiate between vasectomy and tubectomy.
Answer:
Vasectomy and tubectomy are both permanent methods of contraception. These are also known as sterilization.

Vasectomy Tubectomy
(1) Done in males. (1) Done in females.
(2) A short segment of vas deferens is removed. (2) A short segment of oviduct is removed.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Describe briefly :
(i) Which modes of contraception are 100% reliable?
(ii) Where does the test tube baby develop?
(iii) Is there any non-invasive method of determining the condition of the foetus before birth?
Answer:
(i) Sterilization is at present the most effective means of birth control. It involves vasectomy and tubectomy. These are permanent methods of birth control. Vasectomy is done in males and tubectomy is done in females. It involves the removal of a short segment of each vas defence or oviduct and tying up of the remaining ends tightly with surgical thread. These operations are minor and do not affect the normal healthy life.

(ii) Test tube babies develop by in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Ovum from the wife or donor female and sperms from the husband or donor male are collected and are induced to form zygote under simulated conditions in the laboratory The zygote or embryo is then transferred into fallopian tube (Z1FT) or uterus (IUT). Thus test tube babies develop as normal embryo, inside the mother’s womb.

(iii) Ultrasound technique or sonography is a non-invasive method of determining the condition of the foetus. In it high-frequency sound waves are passed through the body. These waves have the property to pass unimpeded through the homogenous tissue till they strike another tissue or organ. Another related technique is called Doppler Ultrasound Scanning. It is based on the fact that a few foetal blood cells leak across the placenta into the mother’s bloodstream. A blood sample from the mother provides enough foetal cells that can be tested for genetic disorders.