BSEB Bihar Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Improvements in Food Resources
Bihar Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Improvements in Food Resources Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes.
Bihar Board Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Improvements in Food Resources InText Questions and Answers
What do we get from cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables ?
Food grains : We obtain carbohydrates which provide energy.
Pulses : Pulses give us protein.
Fruit and vegetables : We obtain vitamins and minerals from fruits and vegetables.
How do biotic and abiotic factors affect crop production ?
Various biotic factors like insects, pests, damages crops thereby reduces crop production. Some nematodes help in increasing soil fertility thus increase crop production. Optimum level of various abiotic factors is necessary for good crop yield. Some of the factors like drought, salinity, water logging, heat, cold, frost etc. are the factors that determine crop production.
What are the desirable agronomic; characteristics for crop improvements ?
Following are the desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvements.
(i) For fooder crops – tallness and profuse branding.
(ii) Cereal crops – dwarfness is useful because such crops need less nutrient to grow and develop.
What are macro-nutrients and why are they called macro-nutrients?
The elements which are very essential for the growth of plants are called macronutrients. These nutrients are required” in fairly large quantity so, they are called macronutrients.
How do plants get obtain their nutrients?
Plants obtain their nutrition from manures and fertilizers.
Compare the use of manures and fertilizers in maintaining soil fertility.
If we supply only manures to the field then its fertility increases slowly and not instantly. But, the fertility is sustained for a longer time. If only fertilizers are supplied to the field, there will be high crop yield because, they provide nutrients instantly. But, the fertility of the soil does not remain for a longer time.
Which of the following conditions will give ‘ the most benefits ? Why ?
(a) Farmers use high-quality seeds, do not adopt irrigation or use fertilizers.
(b) Farmers use ordinary seeds, adopt irrigation and use fertilizer.
(c) Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizer and use crop protection measures.
The farmers shall be most benefitted when they follow conditions given in (c) i.e. they use quality seeds, adopt irrigation and use of fertilizer and crop protection measures. Use of good quality seeds increases crop production. Use of fertilizer also helps in obtaining high yield. If crops are protected from pests, they must give good yield.
Why should preventive measures and biological control methods be preferred for protecting crops.
For protection of crops, preventing measures and’ biological control method are employed because these cause harm neither to the crop nor to the environment. Pesticides and other chemical substances cause harm to crops and pollute the environment.
What factors may be responsible for losses of grains during storagp?
Loss causing factors –
(i) Biotic factors – Insects, rodents, fungi and bacteria, etc.
(ii) Abiotic factors – Moisture content and temperature, etc.
Which method is commonly used for improving cattle breeds and why?
Ai’tificial insemination is supposed a good method for improving cattle breed because, it is easy, of low cost and can fertilize more than 3000 females from the sperms of a single male. This method is more reliable.
Discuss the implications of the following statement – “it is interesting to note that poultry is India’s most efficient converter of low fibre food stuff (which is unfit for human consumption) into highly nutritions animal protein food.”
This statement means that inferior food available in India, which is not fit for human consumption, is a good food for hens. In return, hens produce quality eggs’having good amount of nutritional elements and proteins. Thus, food with low nutritional value is converted into that with high nutritional value by hens.
What management practices are common in dairy and poultry farming?
- Proper arrangement for housing
- Proper arrangement for light
- Proper nutritional arrangement
- Timely vaccination
- Use of improved variety
- Proper arrangement for cleaning and sanitation.
What are the differences between broilers and layers and in their management?
Layers need more space than the broilers. Foods of the layer must be rich in vitamins and minerals while, that of broiler must be rich in protein and fat.
How are fish obtained?
Fishes are obtained from water. These are found in both types of water i.e., sea water and brackish water.
What are the advantages of composite fish culture?
Following are the advantages of composite fish culture –
- Fish can be grown in crop fields especially paddy.
- Intensive fish farming is possible because plenty of water is available during crop season.
- In this system both local and imported fish species can be cultivated.
What are the desirable characters of bee varieties suitable for honey production?
- Ability to collect nectar.
- Ability to protect itself against enemy.
- Queen’s ability to produce healthy eggs.
- Affection to the nature.
What is pasturage and how is it related to honey production?
Pasturage of flora is the type of crop or other plants from which bee collects nectar and pollen to produce honey.
It affects the quality and quantity of honey because different flora produce nectar and pollen of different types. For example almond honey of Kashmir is very tasty.
Bihar Board Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Improvements in Food Resources Textbook Questions and Answers
Explain any one method of crop production which ensures high yield.
It is breeding which is meant for obtaining high yield variety by cross breeding of two genetically different plant species. –
Why are manures and fertilizers used in fields?
Manure and fertilizers are used to increase the soil fertility so that high crop yield can be obtained.
What are the advantages of inter-cropping and crop rotation?
Advantages of inter cropping – When two or more than two crops are grown in the same field in definite rows, the chance of crops getting damaged becomes low. Since, these crops use different nutrients, the overall productivity increases.
Advantages of Crop Rotation –
- Fertility of soil increases
- Less amoun t of fertilizer is needed
- Yield increases
- Helps in controlling peos and weeds affecting crops.
What is genetic mdhipu-lation? How is it useful in agri-cultural practices?
Genetic manipulation includes hybridization of desired characters, recombination of DNA and growth by polyploidy.
It helps in growing crops of desirable characters and obtaining high yield.
How do storage grain losses occur?
Storage grain losses occur due to biotic and abiotic factors like temperature in the following ways –
- decrease in quality
- decrease in weight
- decrease in ability to germinate
- decrease in market demand.
How do good animal husbandry practices benefit farmers?
A good animal husbandry benefits in the following way
- lessens cost
- increases productivity
- develops good reproducing capacity.
What are the benefits of cattle farming?
Cow and buffalo both ate dairy animals. Their- males are used for carrying goods and in agricultural works. Cattle farmers are involved in rearing cattles for obtaining milk, using them in agriculture work and for obtaining other useful materials. „
For increasing production, what is common in poultry, fisheries and bee-keeping?
Se lection of improved variety is equally important in these three eases.
How do you differentiate between capture fishing, mariculture and aquaculture?
Bihar Board Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Improvements in Food Resources Textbook Activities
Visit a weed-infested Held in the month of July or August and make a list of the weeds and insect pests in the field.
Some of the weeds found om plants are :
- Nut grass (Motha)
- Wild sorghum (jungli grass)
- Phalaris (Mandoosi)
- Wild odt (jungli jai)
- Amaranthus (chaulai)
- Trianthema (saathi)
- Chenopodium (bathna)
- Convolvulus (Hiran Khuri)
Some of the insect pests are as under :
Visit a livestock farm. Note the following :
- Number of cattle and number of different breeds.
- The amount of daily milk production from the different breeds.
1. There were around 50-100 cattle of around 7-8 breeds in a livestock farm that I visited.
Bihar Board Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Improvements in Food Resources Additional Important Questions and Answers
Name some food sources.
- Food grains
- Edible oil
What are the sources of food-source?
From where is food-source obtained?
Food – source
(i) Plants- e.g., food-grains, pulses, fruits and vegetable.
(ii) Animals e.g., meat, egg and milk.
How much plant and animal products are required every year tojfulfil the need of food in our country?
As per the present estimation, 360 million tonnes of plant products and 88 million tonnes of animal products are required in India every year.
On the basis of crops, how many crop seasons are there?
There are two main crop seasons –
(i) Kharif season . Rainy season (June to October).
(ii) Rabi season : Winter season (November to April).
Name various scientific methods used for improvements in yield.
(i) Crop production manage-ment. .
(ii) High yielding variety.
(iii) Crop protection.
Name some cereals which provide as Carbohydrate.
Wheat, rice, maize, millets and sorghum, etc.
Name some pulses which provide as proteins.
Gram, pea, black gram, green gram, pigeon pea, lentil, etc.
Name some oil seeds which provide us fats.
Soyabean, ground nut, sesame, castor, mustard, linseed and sunflower, etc.
Name some fodder crops.
Berseem, oats or sudan grass.
What is Kharif season? What is its duration? Name few Kharif crops.
Kharif season is the reason during which Kharif crops are grown. It falls during the rainy season. It is of about four months duration ranging from July to October. The main Kharif crops are – paddy, soyabean, pig- on pea, maize, cotton, green gram and black gram.
What is rabi season? What is its dm Jon? Name few rabi crops.
Rabi season is the season during which rabi crops are grown. It falls during winter season. It is of about five months duration. It ranges from November to April. The main rabi cros are – wheat, gram, peas, mustard, linseed, etc. ,
What is ratio of increase in cultivable land and production of food grain in India during last 45 years.
The ratio of increase in cultivable land re production of food grain in India during last 45 yeaYs is about 1 : 16.
What are the major groups of activities for increasing crop yields?
(i) Crop variety improvement
(ii) Crop production improvement
(iii) Crop protection improvement.
Name the factors done for crop variety improvement.
Following are the important factors done for variety improvement
- High yield –
- Improved quality
- Biotic and abiotic resistance
- Change in maturity duration
- Wider adaptability
- Desirable agronomic charac-teristics.