Bihar Board 12th Biology Important Questions Short Answer Type Part 1

Bihar Board 12th Biology Important Questions Short Answer Type Part 1 are the best resource for students which helps in revision.

Bihar Board 12th Biology Important Questions Short Answer Type Part 1

Question 1.
Draw a well labelled diagram of a typical flower.
Bihar Board 12th Biology Important Questions Short Answer Type Part 1, 1

Question 2.
Draw a well labelled diagram of a pollen grain.
Bihar Board 12th Biology Important Questions Short Answer Type Part 1, 2

Question 3.
In algae and fungi which structure help in asexual reproduction.
Thallus in algae and spores in fungi help in asexual reproduction.

Question 4.
What is double fertilization?
One male gamete fuses with egg to form zygote and another male nucleus fuses with polar nuclei. Hence male nuclei fuse double is called double fertilization.

Question 5.
What is pollination by Bat?
Chiropterophily e.g. Kadam

Question 6.
Describe different parts of Seed.
Seed Coat, embryo, endosperm and cotyledon.

Question 7.
Which type of fruit develops from hypanthodium?
Syconus eg. Fig. Peepal.

Question 8.
Why vegetative reproduction is also considered as a asexual reproduction?
Reproduction occurs by any part of body other than flower in plant is called asexual reproduction.

Question 9.
What is law of Mendel?

  • Mendel took only those trait which did not show linkage interaction.
  • Plan pea is ideal for controlled breeding.

Question 10.
Name any two reasons for Mendel’s success.

  1. Mendel selected only pure breeding varieties of pea for his experiments.
  2. Mendel took one or two characters at one time for his breeding experiments.

Question 11.
What is genotypic and phenotypic ratio of monohybrid and dihybrid corss?
Monohybrid cross:

  • Phenotypic Ratio 3 : 1
  • Genotypic Ratio 1 : 2 : 1

Dihybrid Cross:

  • Phenotypic Ratio 9 : 3 : 3 : 1
  • Genotypic Ratio 1 : 2 : 1 : 2 : 4 : 2 : 1 : 2 : 1

Question 12.
What is Polyploidy?
Increase in number of chromosome or set of chromosomes is called polyploidy.

Question 13.
What is multiple alleles?
It is present more than two alleles of a gene.

Question 14.
What is difference between DNA and RNA.

Character DNA RNA
1. Nitrogen Base Thymine and cytosine Adenine & Guanine Uracil and Cytosine Adenine and Guanine
2. Sugar Deoxyribose Sugar Ribose Sugar

Question 15.
What are Okazaki fragments and what enzymes join them?
A small fragment of lagging strand of DNA that contains numerous nucleotides.
-DNA ligase join them.

Question 16.
Define operon?
A group of genes making up a regulatory or control unit.

Question 17.
What is reverse transcription?
RNA → DNA → RNA → Protein.

Question 18.
Major function of gene.

  • Genetic information
  • Replication

Question 19.
AUGCCG is base sequence in mRNA write base sequence in DNA?

Question 20.
What is Peptide Bond?
A bond between two amino acid is called peptide bond.

Question 21.
What is main source of variation in gene pool?

  • Genetic drift
  • gene migration.

Question 22.
How the gene expression is carried out at translocation level.
Gene expression occurs by Repressible regulation/control or negative control and by positive control or inducible control processes.

Question 23.
What are the terms given by Benzor for genes.
Cistron was given by Benzer.

Question 24.
What is tissue culture?
It is a technique of maintaining and growing plant cells, tissue or organs especially on artificial medium in suitable containers under control environmental conditions.

Question 25.
Name some genetically engineered crop plants.

  • Bt Cotton
  • Golden rice
  • Transgenic Tobacco
  • Flaur Saure

Question 26.
What is Apiculture and Sericulture.
Apiculture – It is rearing of honey bees for obtaining honey and bee wax.
Sericulture – It is an art for breeding of Silk Worm to produce Silk.

Question 27.
What is Special about Bacillus Thuringiensis?
Bacillus thuringiensis is a soil bacterium that produces cry protein which kill certain insects.

Question 28.
What do you mean by Biopiracy?
Some organizations and multinational companies exploit and patent biological resources of other nation without proper authorisation is called Biopiracy.

Question 29.
What is role of Bacillus thuringiensis?
Bacillus thuringiensis produces cry protein which is lethal to pest.

Question 30.
What is gene therapy?
Technique of genetic engineering to replace a family gene by a normal healthy functional gene.

Question 31.
What is Vaccines?
Vaccines are preparation of extract of dead which on evoculation into a healthy person provide temporary or permanent active or passive immunity by inducing antibody formation.

Question 32.
Name same antibiotics produced by Microorganisms?
Penicillin, Neomycin, Streptomycin, Tetracyclines. Terramycin, Erythromycin etc.

Question 33.
What is isolation of genetic material?
Finding out of DNA molecule from the desired cells with Lysozyme or Cellulase or Chitinase.

Question 34.
What is difference between transformation and transduction?

  • Transformation – Change in the genetic constitution of an organism by picking up genes present in the medium.
  • Transduction – Change in genetic constitution of an organism through reproduction with Virus.

Question 35.
What is function of Restriction endonuclease and Ligase?

  • Restriction Endonuclease – It cleave DNA duplex at any point except end.
  • Ligase – Bind Vector DNA segment with the DNA of desired cells.

Question 36.
Give the name of same antibiotics.
Penicillin, Neomycin, Streptomycin, Tetracyclines, Terramycin.

Question 37.
Give the name of four antibiotics producing organisms.

  1. Penicillium notatum
  2. Penicillium chrysogenum
  3. Streptomyces noursei
  4. Streptomyces griseus.

Question 38.
What is difference between Cybrid and Hybrid?
Cybrid – One nucleus of one cells persist and cytoplasm of both cell fused.
Hybrid – Nucleus of both cells with cytoplasm fused.

Question 39.
What is retrovirus?
It is RNA Containing virus showing reverse transcription, i.e. HIV Virus.

Question 40.
What is DNA Probe?
It is single stranded piece of DNA.

Question 41.
What do you mean by the term in Vitro and in Vivo experiments?
In Vitro – Experiment conducted in lab.
In Vivo – Experiment conducted in natural condition.

Question 42.
How a recombinant DNA is formed by the help of genetic engineering?
It is formed by recombinant DNA technology.

Question 43.
What is DNA Primer?
It is the synthetic small segment of DNA which is complementary to the specific segment of a DNA.

Question 44.
Give the name of natural polymer which is extracted from seaweed (Sea Algae).

Question 45.
DNA and proteins are macromolecules which among the two is bigger and how?
DNA is bigger than proteins because protein is produced by coding strand of DNA.

Question 46.
What is Symbiosis? Name two types of Symbiosis.
It is relationship between two living individuals of different species in which either both species are benefitted.

  • Mutualism – Both benefitted
  • Commensalism – One benefitted but other neither benefitted nor harmed.

Question 47.
Name the types of ecological pyramid.

  1. Pyramid of number
  2. Pyramid of Biomass
  3. Pyramid of Energy