Important Questions

Bihar Board 12th English The Story of English Important Questions

Bihar Board 12th English The Story of English Important Questions

Question 1.
Write a short note on the importance of English as an international language of business, commerce and culture. .
Answer:
English is the language of the Anglo-Saxon invaders who settled in Britain from the fifth century onwards. But today it has become the most widely spoken language today on earth, with every tenth person in the world employing it as his primary tongue.

Today it is used by more than 400 million people as the primary means of communication, and nearly one in every four persons in the world today could be reached by it in some degree. Its speakers cover one-fifth of the globe. The following statistics speak for themselves

(A) More than 70% of the world’s mail is written and addressed in English. More than 60% of the world’s radio programmes are in English.

(B) Throughout Africa and the Middle East English serves as the lingua franca.

(C) Today English is taught in all schools and colleges in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, The Netherland, Austria, Portugal, Greece, Turkey and Japan.

(D) Throughout Asia and Latin America, English is spoken and understood almost everywhere except in the remoter areas.

(E) In the European communist countries — East Gern ,any, Poland, Yugoslavia and even Soviet Russia —’ English is taught from the primary school level.

One of the most important reasons for the phenomenal spread of the English language around the world is its rich and luxuriant vocabulary of more than half a million words and the flexibility of their use. It is also one of the easiest to learn. There is a hard core of about 1000 energetic words and a few liberal rules of grammar which can be learnt with ease and speed. In 1920, Professor I.A.

Richards and C.K. Ogden, two eminent Cambridge scholars, discovered a distilled form of the English language, known as Basic English, which contains in elixir form 850 versatile and energetic words with which almost any idea can be expressed in a simple non-technical fashion. Basic English proved an invaluable tool during the second world war when foreign soldiers were given a good working knowledge of English in a concentrated course of only about sixty hours.

Another reason for its world-wide popularity is the cosmpolitan character of its vocabulary. Throughout the centuries it has borrowed so freely and profusely from almost every important language on earth. The following random list of various borrowings from various sources would provide the evidence of its cosmpolitan nature.

  • Arabic —alcohol, algebra, alkali, camel, chemistry, magazine etc.
  • Dutch—brandy, duck, golf, measles, uproar, wagon etc.
  • Italian—colonel, duet, infantry, miniature, umbrella, volcano etc.
  • Persian—check, chess, jasmine, khaki, lilac, paradise, shawl, spinach etc.
  • Spanish— Canyon, cigar, mosquito, ranch, stampede, vanilla etc.

English today has attained an unrivaled position as the international link language. Various historical factors have helped it across the centuries in its evolution as the most supple, flexible, easy-to-leam language taking rapid and firm strides towards a world monopoly.

Question 2.
Write a short note on the characteristics of Modern English.
Answer:
The period of Modem English extends from about 1500 A.D. to the present day. However, a modem linguist says that it is clearly necessary to subdivide it at about 1700 A.D. (Queen Anne’s accession) into early and later Modem English.
Although English belongs to the Teutonic branch it has been under the continuous influnce of the Romance languages. As a result the English vocabulary is a balanced mixture of the Teutonic and Romance elements.

Although the essential grammatical structure of the English language is Saxon, with Saxon verbs, conjunctions and prepositions forming the necessary’ frame work of English, The richness and variety of the language are enchanced by Latin and French.

It is again unquestionable that in many instances the Saxon word has a more emotional quality than the corresponding word of French or Latin origin, which is often the more formal of the two; foe. deep, lovely, for example, are more feeling words, and therefore more poetic words than enemy, profound, solitary.

This duality of influence has led to the evolution of two more or less distinct types of English style — the simple and direct which is Saxon; the omatse and the elaborate which is largely Latin.

One of the most important characteristics of the English language has been its extraordinary receptiveness and adaptability which has given it an extremely flexible and heterogeneous character. The other remarkable features are its freedom from inflexions and its relatively fixed word-order. Jespersen refers appreciatively to its masculinity, well-defined sound system, business¬like compactness and freedom from pedantry.

Question 3.
Write a short note on American English.
Answer:
American English has very considerably influenced Modem English, especially in the last quarter of the twentienth century. And this has been due to a far wider set of circumstances than the mere fact of America’s leading position in commerce, films and finance, though these have produced a body of slang in English some of which has already penetrated to good colloquial usage.

The word caucus, for instance, came to England as a political term from America, and has now developed a slightly different meaning. The use of cut as a word of reduction was originally American, but became fixed in good English largely through the financial slump of 1931 in Britain and its consequences. Sense as a verb, which has been in use in the British written language for nearly a century, was an importation from America.

With the abrupt shifting of the political and economic centre of gravity of the western hemisphere from Europe to the United States, the American variety of English has forced itself, often for commercial and technical reasons, upon the attention of millions who were previously unacquainted with it, and what is even more important, it has become respectable, that is to say, it is no longer regarded merely as a quaint, barbarous or amusing appendage to the British original.

Many American expressions today are freely used by British speakers and writers also— O.K., down – and – out, tasty, movie, bill-board, rail road, he-man, to engineer, to author, faucet, to brass tacks, double talk, break down,radio, disk jockey, blurb, fan,backlog, gimmick, forum, commuter, band wagon, bogus etc.

Some of the important features of American English are—

  • Cinema, radio, press and television have contributed to its popularity.
  • The primary difference between English and American is in the rhythm and intonation of speech.
  • The most marked American influence is in the slang of the younger generation in Britain.

Question
Bring out the characteristics of Old English.
Answer:
For a modem reader it would be a little difficult to understand the available texts of Old English because it was not a single uniform language. It was composed of four dialects-Kentish, Northumbrian, Mercian and west Saxon. It was so because three different Anglo-Saxon tribes spoke it in areas of their own.

In the second place the old English differs from Modem English in spelling, vocabulary and even grammatical structure. With the spread of Christianity around 600 AD many Latin words related to religion entered the English language. The important words were-heaven, hell, God, gospel, angel, priest, nun etc.

As a result of the Scandinavian attack on England many words of Scandinavian origin entered which have since then become part of everybody interaction. The important Scandinavian words are-birth, bank, call, die, egg, give, get, sky, sister, window etc.

Many family names and place names have a Scandinavian stamp. In addition to nouns, verbs and adjectives, conjunctions and prepositions of Scandinavian origin also made way to English vocabulary. They, their, them, both, same, to, till, though are Scandinavian words in current use.

Question 4.
Name the four manuscripts of the Old English that have survived.
Answer:
The four major manuscripts of Old English that have survived are as follows—

  • Bewowulf
  • Junius
  • Exeter Book
  • Vercellibookz

Question 5.
Write a short note on Runic Characters.
Answer:
Runic characters formed a system of writing which was in use in the Northern and Western part of Europe. These characters were composed of sharp straight lines without curves.

Many of these letters are found on weapons; such as arrows, axes, knife-handles, swords etc. Some are to be seen in monumens, jewellery or caskets. But, being symbolic in nature, they are difficult to be fully understood.

Question 6.
Write a short note on Middle English.
Answer:
The transition from Old English to Middle English was.influenced by one very important political factor, that is, by Norman attack. The French element made a considerable impact over English language, changing its character sharply, making it a vehicle of administration, law and literature.

The nature and variety of dialects changed during this period. There were five dialects in oral and written use this time-they were Northern, Southern, East Midland, West Midland and Kentish. The Northumbrian OE is now called

Northern; West Saxon is known as Southern; and the Mercian is divided into East Midland dialect and West Midland dialect evolved gradually into Modem English.

The most significant change is the expansion of English vocabulary with the help of extensive borrowing from French language. When a linguist says that borrowings were largely in the fields of science, medicine, law and literature it implies that there was significant academic progress also. Anyway, the important French words borrowed during the period are-history, index, intellect, legal, summary, magnify, temperature etc.

Together with the loss of infection the Great Vowel Shift was another linguistic development.’ Between Middle and Modem English there is the important difference in vowel system. For instance, the long vowels have virtually disappeared and the short vowels have hardly altered. The change in long vowels is known as the Great Vowel Shift.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Preface to Bombay London New York Summary Questions and Answers

Preface to Bombay London New York Summary Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write down a Summary of the preface to Bombay – London – Newyork.
Answer:
The present essay is a fine exercise in unravelling the thoughts of an upcoming writer. We enter into a writer’s formative years, his gropings into the bygone days when literature was patronized by kings and caliphs. And yet it is also full of his disgust over the present cultural decline.

Particularly in the course of his visit to the Khudabaksh Library in Patna the writer is drawn towards the changes of a writer’s world, the difficulties of writing and its rewards spread over a vast expanse of time.

The library takes the mind of the author to both the glorious past of Patna and its present sad decline. He visits the library with Surendra Gopal, an eminent historian who recounts not only the history of ancient Pataliputra but also of the modern Patna—the launching pad of Gandhiji’s movement and the J. P. movement against the misrule of the Congress.

But sadly that spirit seems to be completely missing. Rather the author remembers a personal experience—how her mother was operated upon in P.M.C.H. in the light of torches and lanterns. Such libraries, educational institutions and memory of the glorious past should have galvanized the people. But nothing of this sort is visible in modem Patna. The people seem to be in a state of oblivion, their awareness is poor and they are not prepared to put things in order.

In the library itself, the author comes to see the contrast between a writer’s vocation and the real world. He notices the beautiful content preserved in gold binding, beautiful calligraphy and decorative setting and he thinks of the anxieties of the modem writer regarding response of readers, the sale of his books.

Kitab-UI-Hashaish a book on medicine is introduced by the old librarian: It is a proud possession of the library, a rare book that belonged originally to Caliph Haroun-Ul-Rashid. Translated from’ Greek into, Arabic the book is beautifully illustrated in herbal and mineral colours that look bright even today.

This reminds the author of the renascence. When the translation of Greek and Roman works was done in( oriental languages. A new world was in the making, the chief elements of which were enlightenment and scientific inquiry. The author comes across a book of Hafiz, the Persian poet.

The book was given as a present from the Emperor of Iran to Humayun. Jahangir used the book to know his future when he was in exile in Allahabad. The lines that he took for angry told him that he should return to Delhi where there was a chance of becoming the emperor. On being crowned emperor Jahangir noted in the margin of the page his experience of the anthenticity of the lines.

The admission of Jahangir makes the book a valuable historical document and also reveals how like a common man, a prince could also worry about his future. Such writings have value in bringing the past and the present together—nostalgia is here fused to an anxious concern for the present so that it could match the glories of the past. Amitava Kumar’though he focusses mainly on the past tries to create an inspiration for the present generation.

Question 2.
“Khudabaksh Library has been used a symbol in this essay”. Explain.
Answer:
It is a well-known fact that Khudabaksh Library was originally the personal library of Sir Khudabaksh Khan who donated it to the government. Sir Khudabaksh Khan was a lover of books and manuscripts which he collected from far-off countries at great expense.

He was successful in getting some very rare Persian manuscripts which are not only a fine specimen of calligraphy and ornamental work but happen to be associated with the great Mughals of India Sir Khudabaksh Khan paid special attention to rare copies of the Holy Quran and books on Islam. The result is that at present Khudabaksh Library possesses all the valuable books and treatises on Islam.

The most important thing is that while so many institutions put under the care of the government have failed in maintaining their standard, this library of Patna has well preserved its aura of the past and its stature. The books and manuscripts which were formerly in the possession of kings and emperors are in excellent condition even today.

Amitava Kumar has certainly used Khudabaksh Library as a symbol of the rich cultural heritage which has the power of inspiring the whole of the world. There are books written by emperors and there are books which influenced the destiny of princes. From these books one can understand the interest of the Arabs in the learning acquired by western philosophers, historians and scientists.

It is also proved beyond doubt that the western countries never could match the art of book-binding and of decorating books with gold filigree and precious gems as it was practised in the eastern countries. It is no coincidence simply that an institution of such a stature is situated in the heart of Patna which was formerly the capital of the Mauryan empire.

Anyone who enters the library is reminded at once of the golden past of Pataliputra, its brave and noble kings, their love of art and splendour and their might and power. There is a secret hope in Amitava Kumar that this institution can act as a catalyst in quickening the intellectual faculties of the modem young men of Patna.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Cold Wave Summary Questions and Answers

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Cold Wave Summary Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write down a Summary of Cold Wave.
Answer:
K.A. Abbas was among those few Indian writers who were deeply influenced by Marxism. A versatile person who wrote stories for several successful films, he reveals in his writings a touching concern for the poor, their simple and honest way of living, and the exploitation they are continuously subjected to.

The present story is about an idealistic young man of an affluent family who is disowned by his father for his love for Radha, a dancing girl Nirmal, the handsome protagonist of the story, is a poet who little cared for the worldly prospects. He never knew that his father would not permit him to marry Radha, the beautiful dancing girl of the town. When the father threatened to disown him, Nirmal immediately left his palatial house.

He came to the house of Radha with the fervent hope that she would be as devoted to him as he was to her — he tHoiiglit the two could get some job which would help them live independently. But Radha’s reactions were quite different — She refused to have anything to do with a young man who had been disinherited by his rich father.

The story explores Nirmal’s mind and maps his wonderings in search of help and success from his friends. With the small amount that he had in the pockets of his Kurta he came to Delhi and approached a number of his friends. But none was kind enough to lend him some money with which he could pass off his days in peace.

Shivering in the cold wave he wanders from street to street till he reaches Connaught Place in the night. A blind beggar accosts him for help. As Nirmal tries to cover his shivering body with an old newspaper his eyes turn to the news of cold wave that is sweeping Delhi currently.

Already he is feeling frozen, the newspaper only adds to his anxieties. In the meantime, he notices a woman who asks for a match box. The woman also notices the young man in silk Kurta and immediately guesses that he is a victim of circumstances. She to come closer.’Together, she argues, they could fight the cold wave.

K.A. Abbas has cold wave as a metaphor for the suffering inflicted by the rich over the poor. The rich have their own social code, they will not stand deviation from it. A man can allow his son to be intimate with a dancer, but he won’t permit him to marry her. Thus a way of exploitation is established and continues for ever. The young man’s rebellion is used as a wave of change.

Question 2.
Sketch the character of Baldeo alias Nirmal Meeruti.
Answer:
Baldeo is the protagonist of the story Cold Wave. He is a handsome young man, properly educated and is a poet. But he seems to be a romantic and an idealist who does not understand the ways of the world. He is sincere in his beliefs and actions. He is in love with a beautiful dancer, Radha.

When he announces his intention to marry her his wealthy father threatens to disown him. Paying no heed to the consequences that could follow this. Baldeo alias Nirmal Meeruti leaves his house and proceeds to Radha’s house.

Nirmal had expected a little sympathy from Radha, also a reiteration of her pledge to be with him in all circumstances. But the young lady has greater common sense to attach herself with this penniless man. She coolly refuses to do anything with him. This is the most shocking realization for Nirmal — for the first time he comes to understand that even love in this world is not without material concerns.

Nirmal has not fully broken yet. He has belief in his friends who, he thinks, may help him tide over the crisis. With a little money that he had in the pockets of his Kurta he comes to Delhi. He tries several of his rich friends but without success. On knowing that Nirmal stands disowned by his father, they all turn distant and cool.

Swallowing all this indifference, Nirmal decides to spend the night in Connaught Place – As he tries to cover his body with a sheet of newspaper, he catches the sight of a report of the cold wave sweeping Delhi and the suburbs in the current season.

Already Nirmal is suffering, the report only adds to him mental agitation as well as to his feeling of cold. The way  Nirmal accepts the invitation of the destitute woman shows that he is free from all prejudice. He seems to believe the woman’s words. Without a care for his future he accepts her invitation with the belief that he can now face all inclement weather with strength.

Nirmal thus is a young man of radical ideas, sincere and warm, who is not ready to make any compromise with the exploiting elders of the society. It is this display of guts, this integrity that makes Nirmal’s character so appealing.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

 

A Trick Summary Questions and Answers

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A Trick Summary Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write down a Summary of A Trick.
Answer:
A Trick is a short story written by Prof. R.K. Sinha, the eminent English teacher of Patna University. In this story he writes about a trick played upon a young man by his friend and its impact on him as well as the narator himself. Like the writer, the narrator is a student of English literature. He and his friend, Mr. Varma, have appeared at an examination. There are a very few very brilliant students in the class, including these two. So the atmosphere is very competitive.

One day the narrator congratulates Mr. Varma, saying that he has topped in the examination. The latter is incredulous; but the same thing is repeated in such enthusiastic tones by some friends of the narrator that Mr. Varma is convinced of the truth. However, to as certain the truth he visits, along with his friend, Kamla, to Prof. Chatterjee’s house. The cryptic laughter of the professor is sufficient to make Mr. Varma understand that a trick has been played.

Naturally, Mr. Varma is very angry with the narrator. He sent the ward servant with a ship of paper to the narrator, asking him to return a few books that he had lent him. Now the narrator felt a little guilty for ruffling the sentiments of Mr. Varma. As he was trying to locate the books Mr. Varma himself entered the hostel room and asked forgiveness. Both the friends reqlized that the matter was being taken beyond its natural limit. The narrator renamed his self-control and went together with Mr. Varma to the mess.

Afterward the narrator continued to be haunted by an acute feeling of guilt which was increased when he saw dreams in which the Almighty sat in judgement over his misdeed and pronounced that he would have to be punished. So afraid did the narrator become that he thought that he might fail in the examination. But the result was different from the fear of the dreams — the narrator, in fact, topped.

The story has been written with mastery of detail. The carelessness of the young people, their competitiveness, and their jealousy have been admirably portrayed by Dr. Sinha. But more significant is the psychological treatment of the narrator, his acute feeling of guilt, and the magnanimity of Mr. Varma.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Teaching of English in India Summary Questions and Answers

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Teaching of English in India Summary Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write down a Summary of teaching of English in India.
Answer:
Prof. Amamath Jha, the celebrated teacher of English, was a great educationist whose services were accordingly used by the government of India. He served as teacher in and Vice-Chancellor of Allahabad University and also as chair man of Bihar Public Service Commission. The cause of English was dear to his and in his own way created institutions and teachers devoted to the proper teaching of English language and literature in India.

In the present essay he touches upon some fundamental draw backs which the teaching of English suffers in Indian Schools and Colleges. Saddy, the circumstances have not completely altered. It is high time the message of the essay in understood by those who are in charge of die teaching of English in different states of India.

First of all, Prof. Jha speaks of the unqualified teachers being appointed in Primary Schools to teach English. The result is that the teaching is unsatisfactory and slipshod. During his most impressionable years the child receives bad nutrition.

He learns incorrect pronunciation which leads to defective spelling — loin or lion, claver for clever — defects which become so much a part of his equipment that they are never eradicated. Prof Jha suggests therefore that only properly trained teachers should be appointed.

Secondly at high school stage there is hardly a normal boy for whom there is a proper selection of textbooks. The books should be selected as good literature, as passports into the realises of gold, and not, as frequently they are, as forcing normal down young throats, or as teaching natural science.

At the university stage the student should familiarise himself with the best books, not necessarily the most famous one. He should familiarise himself so that the works could become parts of his daily and hourly throught.

Prof. Jha’s analysis and suggestions are relevant. Since English is becoming more and more important, it is essential that proper attention be paid to its proper teaching at school and college level.

Question 2.
What is Babu English ? Find out the reasons that give birth to Babu English.
Answer:
Babu English generally refers to the formal and pedantic English written by Indian clerks in different offices. Though the language is grammatically correct it lacks clarity and vitality which is the life of language. Babu English is virtually a dull copy of what the clerks have leamt at their school.

The faults of Babu English are due to bad nutrition that children receive at the hands of underqualified teachers at the primary school stage. They learn incorrect pronunciation that leads to bad spelling loin for lion, claver for clever etc.

Question 3.
What should be the role of a teacher of English at the university stage ?
Answer:
The duty of a teacher at the university stage is to educate, to develop die young man’s tastes and correct them, to guide him to never aliveness of delight and inspiration, and to teach him the higher qualities of style, the intellectual and emotional analysis, the thoughtful explanation 6f what had hitherto been only a vague like or dislike.

Prof. Jha gives the example of Sir Walter Raleigh who read aloud to his classes his favourite prose and poetical passages from the various periods of literature.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Marriage is a Private Affair Summary Questions and Answers

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Marriage is a Private Affair Summary Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write down a summary of Marriage Is A Private Affair.
Answer:
Chinua Achebe is the most influential African writer who has presented in his novels and short stories an authetic account of the African society, especially the conflict between tradition and modernity. In this short story also we have this very theme presented in a poignant manner.

Nnaemeka and Neve, belonging to two different tribes, meet in Lagos and decide to marry. But as Nnaemeka knows that his father, Okeke, would not agree to this he postpones communication of this fact to him by post or direct means. When he arives at home for a short vocation Okeke tells him that they have selected Ugoye, the eldest daughter of their neighbour, as his wife.

But very firmly does Nnaemeka refuse to marry the girl chosen by his parents. This shocks Okeke; and in a fit of anger he stops speaking to him. When Nnaemeka’s intention of marrying a girl from other tribe is known to other villagers they are mortified and express great sympathy for Okeke.

They even suggest that the local medicine man should be consulted and Nnaemeka be given some herbal drugs to cure him of this mental derangement. But Okeke, in spite of being rigid about parental authority, is free from these superstitions.

Back in Lagos Nnaemeka marries Nene and the estrangement between the father and the son is complete. To Nnaemeka’s request for spending some part of his vacation Okeke gives a very harsh reply. It would be unfair to say that Okeke endured this separation from his son without a mental conflict. He suffered inwardly, but he could not bring himself to accept the unconventional marriage.

After a few years Okeke receives a letter from Nene. She had written that Ins two guardians wanted to be with him and she had found it impossible to let them know of the old man’s opposition. Okeke reads the letter and an unusual Suiiening results which was further supported by the sudden rains. His mind Ganges and he spends the night, full of remorse and regret over his undue harshness.

The story makes a very honest study of the hold of social authority jn image in African society. In spite of being true Christians and adapting in selves to modem ways of living and education, there are still old people like Okeke who prefer to be cheated by old norms. That the problem has a human angle is nicely revealed in the letter of Nene and the subsequent sentimental reaction of Okeke.

Question 2.
Find instances of conflict between tradition and modernism ii the story.
Answer:
The dialogue between Okeke and Nnaemeka is full of the conflict between tradition and modernism. Nnaemeka tells his father that he cannot marry Ugoye as he does not love her; his father says that it was not expected at all of him. Then Nnaemeka has to admit that he is already, engaged to Nene, a girl who teaches in a Christain girl’s school. Okeke is not persuaded nor does he believe that a Christian woman should teach.

He quetes St. Paul’s letter to the Corinthians in which he had had said that women should keep silence. It is clear that Okeke continues to believe in values and practices that were observed by his society. He thinks that they are so sacrosant that they cannot be changed. It is a pity that he quotes the Bible to support his ‘ arguments.

The second instance can be seen in Okeke’s rigid stance after Nnaemeka’s marriage. That he does not allow his son and daughter-in-law to call on him is an indication of the hold of tradition on him.

Question 3.
What made Nanaemcka’s father change his attitude to hi; daughter-in-law ?
Answer:
Neke, the wife of Nnaemeka, bore the ill-will of her father in law almost ungrudgingly. She had reconciled himself her to the fact that the two of them, the husband and the wife, were not to go to the native village.

But when her two sons wanted to meet their grand father she wrote a moving letter to the old man. Okeke’s heart was instantly softened by the feelings of his grandsons.

To this softening was added the influence of the sudden rains. The rains brought a healing touch Okeke realised that it was a mistake on his part to be so harsh towards the family of his son. His attitude therefore changed.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions Poetry Section

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Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions Poetry Section

Question 1.
What similarities does the poet draw between two human beings ?
Answer:
The ppt discovers that the physical constitution of two human beings is the same. The two are made of same kind of atoms. This is actually a scientific idea — the basic physical constituents of two persons are the same. The differences are superficial and of no material value. Once this similarity is clearly perceived there will be no scope of difference.

All external barriers will breakdown and the oneness of mankind will prevail. But Walt Whitman uses this scientific idea merely in the beginning; when he suggests the identity of assumptions of two persons he speaks actually of a spiritual foundation of all life. It is this single spirit that exists in all and is responsible for all consciousness and activity.

Question 2.
Explain the line: ‘Hoping to cease not till death.’
Answer:
In spite of his spiritual training wait Whitman is aware of his mortality, the fate which no man can escape. And so very cautiously he adds that he would continue to believe in himself and to sing till he dies. That is, only death can bring an end to his song. So long as he is alive he would go on singing this song of oneness.

Question 3.
Why does Walt Whitman not want to bother himself with creeds and schools ?
Answer:
In the modem world the numerous creeds and systems of thought have only divided mankind. The poet who is convinced of the essential unity of the universe has no respect for creeds and schools. He rejects them.

Question 4.
Do you think that the title of the poem is appropriate ? Give reasons.
Answer:
The title of the poem is quite appropriate since it records the feelings not of Rupert Brooke as an individual, but as a responsible soldier of the British Army. What he speaks of by way of his love for England is a common feeling of every soldier for his country. A soldier is not fighting an enemy he is all the tune fighting for his country which he dearly loves. The title expresses this deep feeling of a soldier who is indebted to his country for all that it has given him.

Question 5.
Discuss the main ideas contained in the octave of the poem.
Answer:
In the octave of the sonnet Rupert Brooke speaks of a foreign soil being tranformed into England in the event of his death in the war. He advances a peculiar argument in favour of this — when he dies his mortal remains will mingle with the foreign soil, thus England will come up there in that small comer because the poet is nothing but a true representation of his nation. It is a strange but a true idea. A man is nothing but a complete product of a nation, its ideals, traditions and values. What is strange that the poet thinks that even in death he would continue to represent England.

Question 6.
What is a Sonnet ? Mention the rhyme-scheme of the poem.
Answer:
A Sonnet is the name for a lyric stanza form consisting of fourteen lines. The petrarchan Sonnet, of which the present poem is an example, is divided into Octave (first eight times) and sestet (remaining six lines). The Octave usually asks a question, poses a problem, states a difficulty or conveys a mood. The sestet answers the question, resolues the problem or difficulty or condudes the mood. The rhyme-scheme of the poem is ab ab cd cd and abc abc.

Question 7.
What is the central idea of the peom ?
Answer:
The poem expresses a serene and untroubled mood that attends upon a rich autumnal day with its lengthened twilight and glowing sunset. The poet discovers a nourishing principle in the beauty in nature which links man and nature in a productive work—what nature gives man transforms it to more useful by labour and skill. Consequently, in autumn there is a rich fusion of scenery and music that induces tranquillity.

Question 8.
Pick out the images related to different aspects of nature. Write a note on the use of images in the poem.
Answer:
The important images used in the poem are — the maturing Sun, the moss’d cottage trees, sweet kernel, flowers, budding, warm days, winnowing weed, barred clouds, hilly bourn, light wind. These images demonstrate Keats’s gift of observation of the countryside scene. It is only , in the countryside that the pristine beauty of nature is fully revealed.

Question 9.
What does the poet say about the music of autumn ?
Answer:
The music of autumn is composed of the wailing sound of gnats, the beating of lambs, the singing of crickets and the whistling of robins.

Question 10.
The speaker was fascinated by the snake. Do you think the time mentioned and the place it belonged to has anything to do with fascination ?
Answer:
It was night and too hot. There was a tree infront of his house. He was sleeping but when he felt thirsty he came down with the silent step. The tree was a Southern European tree with dark brown fruit. The snake lived in it. Since it was hot the snake came in the house to drink water in a container which was used by the animal.

It was thirsty. It came out from a small hole of the earth because there was a gap. It seemed feeling of being sad and without hope. It didn’t harm. To see this thought came in mind that it was the guest and a God. So, it came here. In this way the snake fascinated to me.

Question 11.
What does he mean by ‘the voice of my education ?’
Answer:
By ‘the voice of my education’ he means a bad magic spell to be protected from the snake. He thinks it did not hit him but suddenly that part of him that was left behind caused a sudden shaking moment, shows undignified haste. The snake was at a gap. It didn’t harm the poet that he hit him but the poet became afraid to see the black and piosonous snake. So he accused human education.

Question 12.
The snake seemed like a king in exile. What are the qualities that makes the snake so majestic ?
Answer:
The poet D. H. Lawrence a good novelist has seen the snake to his courtyard where he use to feed animal. That snake came there to drink water. It came from a carbtree. It seemed like a king in exile. The qualities that make the snake so majestic are peaceful, black; innocent, pacified and thankless.

Question 13.
What is the sin committed by the speaker that he wanted to expiate ?
Answer:
It was a black snake. It was cobra. Cobra is regarded as the king of snake. Secondly, the snake wanted to drink water. It was not in mood to bite anybody. So, the speaker committed the sin to kill the innocent snake.

Question 14.
What type of love or relation do you find between the grandmother and the speaker ?
Answer:
There existed a great bond between the speaker and the grandmother. The old lady loved the speaker greatly. The details are lacking; but it can be felt t the lady paid every attention to the needs of the speaker, denying her nothing. This is a basic characteristic of the relationship of love.

In love there is neither denial nor rejection. There is absolute trust on both sides. Especially the speaker remembers the house where everything was to her taste. She remembers the books which she did not fully understand but which intensified her interest in life.

Question 15.
What changes have taken place since the speaker’s grandmother died?
Answer:
Great changes have occurred in the house where the grandmother lived and in the pattern of the life of the speaker. The house is now silent, bereft of activity and of the inmates.

The windows are like the eyes of a blind person in which these in no light – they are merely a useless organ reduced to ugliness. The house is dark that is, the human activity that serves as the light of the house is wanting.

More painful changes have occurred in the life of the speaker. She feels completely lonely and finds no love anywhere. The great source of love has died and she is left forlorn in an alien world.

Question 16.
Write down a critical appreciation of Macavity-The Mystery Cat
Answer:
T.S. Eliot, the well-known modem poet, gave profound expression to the boredom and despair of the modem man, his tensions and anxieties in free verse. But in some poems, he wrote also about trivial subjects and made delightful use of nursery rhyme.

Macavity — The Mystery Cat, written in a mock-heroic form, is a portrait of a cat. To distinguish him the poet has portrayed him as a master criminal who commits every crime with finesse but is not found at the scene of crime and whose identity cannot be established as even the Scotland Yard has no record of his footprints. The human dimension of Macavity’s physical activities and gestures makes the poem very much enjoyable.

Physically, Macavity is a wretch with a long and thin body, uncombed whiskers, dusty skin and brows lined with thought. But he is an acrobat and he can levitate like a Yogi. He specialised in robbery, in forcing open jewellery shops, larders and even government houses.

He seems to be interested very much in secret files and documents. Whenever an important treaty or file is found missing from the foreign office the crime is attributed to Macavity, but the cunning cat could be seen at least a mile away from the spot, engaged in the innocent act of licking his thumbs or in serious mathematical calculations.

In absence of proof, it is impossible therefore to lay hands on Macavity. The poet remembers some other notorious cats like Mungojerrie and Griddlebone. But Macavity tops them all in wickedness and cunning. He is therefore honoured for his superiority of the title — Napoleon of Crime.

What in fact T.S. Eliot has tried to suggest is that cats can have a distinguished personality. Although every cat enters stealthily into a kitchen and drinks milk or misplaces household articles a few acquire notoriety in a neighborhood for their unique ways and manners.

Macavity is one such cat who caused immense mischief by taking away many valuable things, even important documents. But he has never been caught nor he has left any clue on the basis of which the crime could be traced to him. All these could be the traits of a very shrewd criminal who plans every act very thoughtfully and manages to escape so fast that the police forces are rendered helpless.

Question 17.
Discuss the poet’s impression of Macavity, the mystery cat. Why does he call it mysterious ?
Answer:
The poet seems to have observed Macavity for a very long time. He is impressed by the peculiar constitution of the cat — he is long and thin, his skin is dusty, his whiskers are uncombed. In the very appearance he resembles persons who are mentally active but very shabby in physical upkeep.

The poet thinks Macavity is mysterious because the cat has never been arrested or punished for the crimes attributed to him. Even the Scotland Yard is helpless in framing this cat for any specific crime.

Question 18.
Make a list of crimes Macavity is capable of:
Answer:
Macavity is found to have committed the following crimes —

  • He cheats at cards.
  • He has looted larders.
  • He has forcibly opened many jewellery boxes.
  • He has drunk milk from several houses.
  • He has broken glass panels of a green house.
  • He has broken frames which are put up for climbing plants.
  • He has stolen away historic treaties.
  • He has stolen away valuable diplomatic documents from the foreign office.

Question 19.
‘Macavity is never there’. Elaborate.
Answer:
Generally, investigations of a crime are carried out in the area of the crime. But after Macavity has done the act, that is, if he has stolen away some document or has consumed milk or has broken some valuable thing he is never found around the spot.

He may be spotted at least a mile away from the spot – and then his face or posture does not betray any criminal act; he is rather quite relaxed or lost in some mathematical calculation.

Question 20.
What images from Nature are used in the poem ?
Answer:
The images from Nature are – yesternight, the sun, wings.

Question 21.
What arguments does the poet give at the time of parting with his beloved ?
Answer:
In the main the speaker tells his beloved that since they enjoyed complete oneness one person’s death has not altered their existence at all. Secondly, he says that in death he enjoys complete immunity from time-it has no power over him, the sun has virtually stopped for him. And thirdly, he says that he is still lying by her side in such a posture that there is no further separation between them.

Question 22.
Describe the frightening scene of the cremation ground that had a deep impact on the mind of the poet.
Answer:
In this poem Keki Daruwalla describes a cremation ground by the side of a river. A number of people would express their horror on having a, look at such a site where dead bodies are consigned to flames at all hours.

As a child the poet used to take a walk along such a cremation ground. I And he used to notice how fire consumed every part, every limb of the dead bodies.

But sometimes the child noticed half-burnt bones left behind. He also; felt that after a time the powers, of the fire were exhausted, and everything turned to a cool grey ash. Nevertheless, the very feeling that man has to come ultimately to this end gave birth to incoherent ideas of mortality, of the meaninglessness of life. In this way death posed a frightening experience for the poet.

Question 23.
What is the significane of the religious identity of the speaker ?
Answer:
At one point the speaker asserts : A Zoroastrian I. It has multiple meanings. At one level it means that religious identity begins to influence the character and temperament of persons from early childhood.

The thought that he was a Zoroastrian come to the speaker when he, as a child, used to take a stroll along, the burning ghat. He is thus familiar with the cardinal principle of Zoroastrian faith-the perpetual struggle between light and darkness. And as a true Zoroastrian, he feels that he has to be on the side of the light.

The reference to the Tower of Silence where the Parsis dispose of their dead further reinforces the Zoroastrian identity of the speaker. As a child he – may have been only half-aware of his religion but after he has grown up he has to abide by the articles of his faith. In this latter reference the spirit of rebellion of the speaker is very much evident He is, in his own words, quite broken but very much rebellious.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Critical Appreciation of The Poem My Grandmother’s House

Critical Appreciation of The Poem My Grandmother’s House

Question 1.
Write a critical appreciation of My Grandmother’s House.
Answer:
Joint family system in which old persons were heads has been a reality in India till recent years, especially during the pre-independence period. Many people still recall with nostalgia the love and security they enjoyed in the atmosphere of a joint family household.

In the present poem, Kamala Das, makes the speaker recall her life in the house of her grand mother. When she says the grandmother’s house she means the house in which the old grandmother was the head.

She begins by telling us first that she received love there. Of all the things that she may have got there she lists love as the most precious gift. The implication is that love is getting scarce and scarce. It is openly expressed in the last lines of the poem where the poet speaks of her present condition in which she is begging for love at the doors of the strangers.

Abruptly then the speaker announces the death of the grandmother and the deadly transformation of the house that followed it. The house became silent and turned into an abode of horror where snake started crawling inside it. This leads the speaker to think of better days when she moved about freely and wondered what could be the subject of numerous books on the shelves.

The fascination of the house is still there in the speaker who now wishes to go back there. She feels that even the frozen air of the house will give her some comfort. The physical details of the house are not given. The house is chiefly remembered for the love that the old lady gave to the speaker during childhood. It is this lost love that is a memorable treasure to her. The poem is a strong statement on the values of the joint family in India.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Critical Appreciation of The Poem Snake

Critical Appreciation of The Poem Snake

Question 1.
Write a critical appreciation of the poem Snake.
Answer:
William Blake was the first poet to write on tiger and make his readers understand the mysterious designs of God’s creativity. Lawrence’s aim is realistic: by recalling a personal encounter with a Sicilian snake he wishes his readers to understand the beauty and dignity of a creature that is fearful but fascinating.

A snake is considered very dangerous. The first impulse of a man on seeing a snake is to hit it instantly in such a way as to finish it. The poet debates this approach on the basis of a personal experience. He saw a large snake slithering to the mouth of a water tank to quench its thirst on a hot summer day.

The poet is also making way to the tank for having a glassful of water. He has to pause when he sees this beautiful snake dipping its mouth in the tank. The snake has reached earlier, the poet must wait for his turn. It is now a moment of conflict – a conflict between conventional notions and sudden illuminations, flashes of light.

However, the poet could not entirely resist the conventional notions altogether. As the snake was retracing he threw a log of wood that hurt it an it hastened, showing its pain. Compared to man who is reckless and utterly selfish the snake is more dignified.

The poem is written in words and images that enact a long episode of observation and the movement of thoughts. Without being very explicit, Lawrence makes a strong argument in favour of the co-existence of man and all creatures, of the principle of bio-principle of bio-diversity and ecological balance.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Critical Appreciation of The Poem Fire Hymn

Critical Appreciation of The Poem Fire Hymn

Question 1.
Attempt a critical appreciation of Fire Hymn.
Answer:
Fire has been an object of worship in many religious communities of the world. It is the subject of many hymns in the Vedas. It is inspiring to find a modem Indian poet, Keki N. Daruwala, to write a fire hymn. It certainly differs from the traditional reverential approach; but in so far as the poem records the scenes of death and destruction and touches upon personal associations it makes us note the supernatural aspect of fire.

A very important thing is the dwelling’ on the Zoroastrian belief in the divinity of fire. The poet remembers the statement of his father. Which is hardly private — it is a reiteration of communal belief. The poet as a child remains unconvinced. But as deaths in the family force him to consign the dead bodies to fire he has a personal experience of the fire’s potency. The rebellious attitude of the poet is no less significant. It cannot be the last statement; but it will certainly let him evolve a more rational view of fire in course of time.

The poem begins with the recollection of a morning walk the poet had taken with his father. They were walking by the river which had a cremation ground by its bank. The father contemplates his own end in the scenes of bones partly burnt by fire.

The man thinks that fire forgets to bum the whole body and so a few half-burnt bones can be seen lying here and there. It is the consignment of his first-born child to the Tower of Silence that fills him with acute suffering. He thinks he can hear fire mocking at his infirmity and helplessness. The poem is a rejection of death. The devotional feeling of the community is ironically treated by the poet.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions

Critical Appreciation of The Poem Macavity: The Mystery Cat

Critical Appreciation of The Poem Macavity: The Mystery Cat

Question 1.
Attempt a critical appreciation of My Grandmother’s House.
Answer
Among the several pleasures enjoyed by the people who belonged to the generation of Kamala Das the most important was certainly the state of living with one’s grandparents. The enjoyments of childhood were doubled when grandparents were around. They gave unstinted love to children and spent more time with them, telling them stories and attending to their needs.

Kamala Das pays a tribute to her loving grandmother in this poem when she remembers the idyllic days she spent in her grandmother’s louse. The grandmother is chiefly remembered through the house she kept, the things that the house possessed and the strong emotional association that Kamala Das formed with them.

Written in free verse the poem is virtually an unrolling of the scenes vividly preserved in the minds, camera. But first of all Kamala Das talks of receiving love. This is most important- the grandmother’s house may not be valuable as a piece of architecture, but it was a storehouse of love.

In everything of the house these was the impression of love, of fulfillment of desires, and of absolute freedom. But unfortunately the old lady is no more. And it is a memory of the old lady that gets attached to the memory of that old house. Like the dead old lady the house is also silent. It was full of books which fascinated Kamala Das they were beyond her comprehension at that time. The memory of a few snakes moving in the library is also clear, the snakes actually symbolizing terror and mystery’

Now that Kamala Das is no longer a child, she still has a desire of breathing the atmosphere of the house Even the darkness of that house has a protective air and Kamala Das compares it to a dog,’ to a creature of faith and service and wishes to transplant it to her bedroom now.

The last few lines of the poem assume a poignant touch when the old experience of grandmother’s love is shared with the poet’s beloved for a moment and then suddenly the poet’s statement of her present condition, of her begging of love that is seldom available to her. The loss of the grandmother’s house is the loss of love, of a world that exists in memory and remains a counterpoint to the present loneliness.

Bihar Board Class 12th English Important Questions